Bitcoin Abuse Database: 1EPVWaV52ojLQKgUuMRsvZrxcZBR297PyA

Should Bitcoin upgrade to SHA-384? /r/Bitcoin

Should Bitcoin upgrade to SHA-384? /Bitcoin submitted by BitcoinAllBot to BitcoinAll [link] [comments]

Terragreen – World’s first blockchain technology running on SHA – 384 algorithm

The TerraGreen project decided to create their own blockchain, with very different properties than other cryptocurrencies, decoupling the layer from the core blockchain protocol, offering a radical new way to create online markets and programmable transactions that are as following:
Public blockchain:
Public blockchains are just that, public. Anyone who wants to read, write, or wish to connect a public blockchain can do so. Public chains are decentralized meaning no one body has control over the network, ensuring the data can’t be changed once if it is validated on the blockchain. Simply indicates, anyone, anywhere, can use a public blockchain to input transactions and data as long as they are connected to the network.
In TerraGreen , all the nodes connected in the network can see the transaction of each other and the entire activities taken by the individuals among the network.
Private Blockchain:
Blockchains that are private or permission work similarly to public blockchains but with access controls that restrict those that can join the network, meaning it operates like a centralized database system of the present that limits access to certain users. Private Blockchains consists of one or multiple entities that control the network, which leads to the reliance on third-parties to transact.
A well-known example would be Hyperledger. Private blockchains can only be used by those who have been invited by the network’s administrators.
Centralized blockchain:
Centralized blockchains offer much more customized and control over the network to the organization deploying it as they can decide who gets to participate in the network. This signifies that not as much resources have to be invested in competing to secure the network which makes Centralized Blockchains more environment-friendly compared to their Decentralized counterparts.
In TerraGreen centralized blockchain, a group of users connected to centralized authority can only see the transactions and all the activities take placed between the connected nodes within the specific network that runs the transaction.
However, in a centralized network, only known and identified parties can transact on the ledger. Therefore, their transactions can be audited.
How blockchain technology works?
At the core of blockchains is their accord algorithm. This algorithm is based on SHA-384, which is one of the latest algorithms in today's world. This SHA- 384 algorithm is only used by the TerraGreen. At present, the most generally utilized model is proof of work (PoW) .
Well, a blockchain is a chain of blocks, ordered in a network of non-trusted peers. Each block would reference the previous one and contains data, its own hash, and the hash of the previous block. All blocks can store an amount of money, a share of the company, a digital certificate of its own ownership, a vote during an election process, or any other values.
A block for an ecommerce transaction will contain the identifiers of the retailer and consumer as well, for example. Each block also has a hash. This hash is a value generated from a string of texts using a mathematical function.
TerraGreen Token Module
Firstly, we are going to create is a “Token Module” where “Tokens” comes under the TerraGreen system which includes various of trading goods. These goods are all about the coins, all loyalty points, gold certificates, shares, IOUs, in game items, and creamy brands etc. Since long, all the tokens module implements some basic features in a standard manner, this also concludes that our token will be instantly compatible with the TerraGreen wallet and any different client or contract that uses the same standards.
TerraGreen token module comprises of IDE using Graphical user interface (GUI), where drag & drop feature is major com fort to the users.
The drag & drop features the device gestures, through which the user can select a virtual object by "grab it” and “drag it” to a particular location or onto another virtual object inside IDE.
Drag-Drop is a latest feature in today’s technology which is only available in our TerraGreen . This technique is not found in all the other software, user would find it as quick & fast-to-grasp this technique.
The token module of Terra green has an enhanced GUI features which are more convenient to the users to create its own token using TerraGreen token module.
TerraGreen tokens modules are being built on the formation of the blockchains. It’s tokens have different - different nodes through which it is accessible. And these nodes can be created using different names.
All these tokens are properties of entities. And if we add new field in node then these field will be available be as token. TerraGreen token module would require token generation and its return value properties.
Token properties will comprise of the following:
• Name of the token• Description of the token• Data type must be provided, these data type will be used for the text being processed.
The creators of the token will issue the token to others in exchange for TerraGreen and sometimes bitcoin and other digital currencies. Generally, there’s no requirement that tokens should be well distributed, although it is a decentralized application so the tokens should be owned by as many people as possible. In cryptocurrency today, a TerraGreen Coin might be a great start. The perception to presale coins of a cryptocurrency or token of a TerraGreen blockchain project will evolve in a crazy successful instrument to raise funds for the advancement of a new application.
submitted by tgncoin to blockchainanalytics [link] [comments]

3 facts proving NSA/US Fed created Bitcoin. Challenge the 3 facts, I dare you.

We are often way too focused on the price of Bitcoin, to question Bitcoin’s origin. Yet the facts are right under the spot light, how 1 million of Bitcoin is kept in reserve, how SHA 256 is a baby of NSA, and how it takes less than $20 billion to crack Bitcoin yet the US Gov has done nothing 10 years after the invention of Bitcoin.

FACT 1: "Satoshi" kept 1,000,000 Bitcoins for "himself".

Satoshi is NOT a kind benevolent saviour who invented Bitcoin to save the world. Satoshi invented Bitcoin and kept 1,000,000 Bitcoin for himself, in hope one day when Bitcoin becomes the single world currency he/his organisation will at least own 5% of Bitcoin, aka 5% of global purchasing power, at least.
The Fiat System is collapsing. If we crypto/bitcoin enthusiasts on the Reddit forum can see it, of course the guys at the top of the pyramid can see it, and they saw it long before we did. They did something about it, they invented Bitcoin.
And yes, it would take more than one computer nerd to come up with Bitcoin. It would have involved many years of work in complete secrecy by many number of experts with a lot of computing power. Which organisation fits the bill besides NSA? And yes they kept 1,000,000 Bitcoin.

FACT 2: Bitcoin's Sha 256 is a subset of cryptographic hash functions designed by the United States National Security Agency (NSA).

SHA-2 (Secure Hash Algorithm 2) is a set of cryptographic hash functions designed by the United States National Security Agency (NSA). The SHA-2 family consists of six hash functions with digests (hash values) that are 224, 256, 384 or 512 bits: SHA-224, SHA-256, SHA-384, SHA-512, SHA-512/224, SHA-512/256.
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/SHA-2
BOOM! Yes people, NSA actually came up with the backbone of Bitcoin. It is right under the spotlight. Who else, besides from NSA, could have taken NSA tech and use it to create Bitcoin?

FACT 3: If the Fed/NSA/US Government really wanted to destroy Bitcoin, they could have and would have done a 51% attack already, it is dirt cheap.

But no, instead they sent a hairless patsy like Brad Sherman to whine about it in public. Do you really think Sherman is the US government's best shot against Bitcoin? To launch a 51% attack on Bitcoin, it only takes $8.4 billion USD in hardware, and a day run rate of $5 million USD to do so.
https://gobitcoin.io/tools/cost-51-attack/
To put things into perspective, the Fed just sold $27 billion USD worth of US Treasuries on 8th of May. Apple's market value is $859 billion USD. Yes NSA/Fed/US Government could easily break Bitcoin if they wanted to.

Once again. the 3 facts: FACT 1: "Satoshi" kept 1,000,000 Bitcoins for "himself". FACT 2: Bitcoin's Sha 256 is a subset of cryptographic hash functions designed by NSA FACT 3: If the Fed/NSA/US Government really wanted to destroy Bitcoin, they could have and would have done a 51% attack already, it is dirt cheap for the US government to do so.

Conclusion: Yes Bitcoin is designed by the NSA/Fed/US Gov. That is absolutely fine because if anything it is actually sign that Bitcoin will actually flourish, given the implicit government backing Bitcoin has.
They pulled it off with Fiat Money for 80 years. They realised the fiat game is ending. They started a new game - Bitcoin!
submitted by SexyCandyFcuky to Bitcoin [link] [comments]

Decred Journal — June 2018

Note: You can read this on GitHub, Medium or old Reddit to see the 207 links.

Development

The biggest announcement of the month was the new kind of decentralized exchange proposed by @jy-p of Company 0. The Community Discussions section considers the stakeholders' response.
dcrd: Peer management and connectivity improvements. Some work for improved sighash algo. A new optimization that gives 3-4x faster serving of headers, which is great for SPV. This was another step towards multipeer parallel downloads – check this issue for a clear overview of progress and planned work for next months (and some engineering delight). As usual, codebase cleanup, improvements to error handling, test infrastructure and test coverage.
Decrediton: work towards watching only wallets, lots of bugfixes and visual design improvements. Preliminary work to integrate SPV has begun.
Politeia is live on testnet! Useful links: announcement, introduction, command line voting example, example proposal with some votes, mini-guide how to compose a proposal.
Trezor: Decred appeared in the firmware update and on Trezor website, currently for testnet only. Next steps are mainnet support and integration in wallets. For the progress of Decrediton support you can track this meta issue.
dcrdata: Continued work on Insight API support, see this meta issue for progress overview. It is important for integrations due to its popularity. Ongoing work to add charts. A big database change to improve sorting on the Address page was merged and bumped version to 3.0. Work to visualize agenda voting continues.
Ticket splitting: 11-way ticket split from last month has voted (transaction).
Ethereum support in atomicswap is progressing and welcomes more eyeballs.
decred.org: revamped Press page with dozens of added articles, and a shiny new Roadmap page.
decredinfo.com: a new Decred dashboard by lte13. Reddit announcement here.
Dev activity stats for June: 245 active PRs, 184 master commits, 25,973 added and 13,575 deleted lines spread across 8 repositories. Contributions came from 2 to 10 developers per repository. (chart)

Network

Hashrate: growth continues, the month started at 15 and ended at 44 PH/s with some wild 30% swings on the way. The peak was 53.9 PH/s.
F2Pool was the leader varying between 36% and 59% hashrate, followed by coinmine.pl holding between 18% and 29%. In response to concerns about its hashrate share, F2Pool made a statement that they will consider measures like rising the fees to prevent growing to 51%.
Staking: 30-day average ticket price is 94.7 DCR (+3.4). The price was steadily rising from 90.7 to 95.8 peaking at 98.1. Locked DCR grew from 3.68 to 3.81 million DCR, the highest value was 3.83 million corresponding to 47.87% of supply (+0.7% from previous peak).
Nodes: there are 240 public listening and 115 normal nodes per dcred.eu. Version distribution: 57% on v1.2.0 (+12%), 25% on v1.1.2 (-13%), 14% on v1.1.0 (-1%). Note: the reported count of non-listening nodes has dropped significantly due to data reset at decred.eu. It will take some time before the crawler collects more data. On top of that, there is no way to exactly count non-listening nodes. To illustrate, an alternative data source, charts.dcr.farm showed 690 reachable nodes on Jul 1.
Extraordinary event: 247361 and 247362 were two nearly full blocks. Normally blocks are 10-20 KiB, but these blocks were 374 KiB (max is 384 KiB).

ASICs

Update from Obelisk: shipping is expected in first half of July and there is non-zero chance to meet hashrate target.
Another Chinese ASIC spotted on the web: Flying Fish D18 with 340 GH/s at 180 W costing 2,200 CNY (~340 USD). (asicok.comtranslated, also on asicminervalue)
dcrASIC team posted a farewell letter. Despite having an awesome 16 nm chip design, they decided to stop the project citing the saturated mining ecosystem and low profitability for their potential customers.

Integrations

bepool.org is a new mining pool spotted on dcred.eu.
Exchange integrations:
Two OTC trading desks are now shown on decred.org exchanges page.
BitPro payment gateway added Decred and posted on Reddit. Notably, it is fully functional without javascript or cookies and does not ask for name or email, among other features.
Guarda Wallet integrated Decred. Currently only in their web wallet, but more may come in future. Notable feature is "DCR purchase with a bank card". See more details in their post or ask their representative on Reddit. Important: do your best to understand the security model before using any wallet software.

Adoption

Merchants:
BlueYard Capital announced investment in Decred and the intent to be long term supporters and to actively participate in the network's governance. In an overview post they stressed core values of the project:
There are a few other remarkable characteristics that are a testament to the DNA of the team behind Decred: there was no sale of DCR to investors, no venture funding, and no payment to exchanges to be listed – underscoring that the Decred team and contributors are all about doing the right thing for long term (as manifested in their constitution for the project).
The most encouraging thing we can see is both the quality and quantity of high calibre developers flocking to the project, in addition to a vibrant community attaching their identity to the project.
The company will be hosting an event in Berlin, see Events below.
Arbitrade is now mining Decred.

Events

Attended:
Upcoming:

Media

stakey.club: a new website by @mm:
Hey guys! I'd like to share with you my latest adventure: Stakey Club, hosted at stakey.club, is a website dedicated to Decred. I posted a few articles in Brazilian Portuguese and in English. I also translated to Portuguese some posts from the Decred Blog. I hope you like it! (slack)
@morphymore translated Placeholder's Decred Investment Thesis and Richard Red's write-up on Politeia to Chinese, while @DZ translated Decred Roadmap 2018 to Italian and Russian, and A New Kind of DEX to Italian and Russian.
Second iteration of Chinese ratings released. Compared to the first issue, Decred dropped from 26 to 29 while Bitcoin fell from 13 to 17. We (the authors) restrain ourselves commenting on this one.
Videos:
Audio:
Featured articles:
Articles:

Community Discussions

Community stats: Twitter followers 40,209 (+1,091), Reddit subscribers 8,410 (+243), Slack users 5,830 (+172), GitHub 392 stars and 918 forks of dcrd repository.
An update on our communication systems:
Jake Yocom-Piatt did an AMA on CryptoTechnology, a forum for serious crypto tech discussion. Some topics covered were Decred attack cost and resistance, voting policies, smart contracts, SPV security, DAO and DPoS.
A new kind of DEX was the subject of an extensive discussion in #general, #random, #trading channels as well as Reddit. New channel #thedex was created and attracted more than 100 people.
A frequent and fair question is how the DEX would benefit Decred. @lukebp has put it well:
Projects like these help Decred attract talent. Typically, the people that are the best at what they do aren’t driven solely by money. They want to work on interesting projects that they believe in with other talented individuals. Launching a DEX that has no trading fees, no requirement to buy a 3rd party token (including Decred), and that cuts out all middlemen is a clear demonstration of the ethos that Decred was founded on. It helps us get our name out there and attract the type of people that believe in the same mission that we do. (slack)
Another concern that it will slow down other projects was addressed by @davecgh:
The intent is for an external team to take up the mantle and build it, so it won't have any bearing on the current c0 roadmap. The important thing to keep in mind is that the goal of Decred is to have a bunch of independent teams on working on different things. (slack)
A chat about Decred fork resistance started on Twitter and continued in #trading. Community members continue to discuss the finer points of Decred's hybrid system, bringing new users up to speed and answering their questions. The key takeaway from this chat is that the Decred chain is impossible to advance without votes, and to get around that the forker needs to change the protocol in a way that would make it clearly not Decred.
"Against community governance" article was discussed on Reddit and #governance.
"The Downside of Democracy (and What it Means for Blockchain Governance)" was another article arguing against on-chain governance, discussed here.
Reddit recap: mining rig shops discussion; how centralized is Politeia; controversial debate on photos of models that yielded useful discussion on our marketing approach; analysis of a drop in number of transactions; concerns regarding project bus factor, removing central authorities, advertising and full node count – received detailed responses; an argument by insette for maximizing aggregate tx fees; coordinating network upgrades; a new "Why Decred?" thread; a question about quantum resistance with a detailed answer and a recap of current status of quantum resistant algorithms.
Chats recap: Programmatic Proof-of-Work (ProgPoW) discussion; possible hashrate of Blake-256 miners is at least ~30% higher than SHA-256d; how Decred is not vulnerable to SPV leaf/node attack.

Markets

DCR opened the month at ~$93, reached monthly high of $110, gradually dropped to the low of $58 and closed at $67. In BTC terms it was 0.0125 -> 0.0150 -> 0.0098 -> 0.0105. The downturn coincided with a global decline across the whole crypto market.
In the middle of the month Decred was noticed to be #1 in onchainfx "% down from ATH" chart and on this chart by @CoinzTrader. Towards the end of the month it dropped to #3.

Relevant External

Obelisk announced Launchpad service. The idea is to work with coin developers to design a custom, ASIC-friendly PoW algorithm together with a first batch of ASICs and distribute them among the community.
Equihash-based ZenCash was hit by a double spend attack that led to a loss of $450,000 by the exchange which was targeted.
Almost one year after collecting funds, Tezos announced a surprise identification procedure to claim tokens (non-javascript version).
A hacker broke into Syscoin's GitHub account and implanted malware stealing passwords and private keys into Windows binaries. This is a painful reminder for everybody to verify binaries after download.
Circle announced new asset listing framework for Poloniex. Relevant to recent discussions of exchange listing bribery:
Please note: we will not accept any kind of payment to list an asset.
Bithumb got hacked with a $30 m loss.
Zcash organized Zcon0, an event in Canada that focused on privacy tech and governance. An interesting insight from Keynote Panel on governance: "There is no such thing as on-chain governance".
Microsoft acquired GitHub. There was some debate about whether it is a reason to look into alternative solutions like GitLab right now. It is always a good idea to have a local copy of Decred source code, just in case.
Status update from @sumiflow on correcting DCR supply on various sites:
To begin with, none of the below sites were showing the correct supply or market cap for Decred but we've made some progress. coingecko.com, coinlib.io, cryptocompare.com, livecoinwatch.com, worldcoinindex.com - corrected! cryptoindex.co, onchainfx.com - awaiting fix coinmarketcap.com - refused to fix because devs have coins too? (slack)

About This Issue

This is the third issue of Decred Journal after April and May.
Most information from third parties is relayed directly from source after a minimal sanity check. The authors of Decred Journal have no ability to verify all claims. Please beware of scams and do your own research.
The new public Matrix logs look promising and we hope to transition from Slack links to Matrix links. In the meantime, the way to read Slack links is explained in the previous issue.
As usual, any feedback is appreciated: please comment on Reddit, GitHub or #writers_room. Contributions are welcome too, anything from initial collection to final review to translations.
Credits (Slack names, alphabetical order): bee and Richard-Red. Special thanks to @Haon for bringing May 2018 issue to medium.
submitted by jet_user to decred [link] [comments]

3 facts proving Bitcoin was created by NSA/US Gov. Challenge these 3 facts, I dare you.

We are often way too focused on the price of Bitcoin, to question Bitcoin’s origin. Yet the facts are right under the spot light, how 1 million of Bitcoin is kept in reserve, how SHA 256 is a baby of NSA, and how it takes less than $20 billion to crack Bitcoin yet the US Gov has done nothing 10 years after the invention of Bitcoin.
FACT 1: "Satoshi" kept 1,000,000 Bitcoins for "himself".
Satoshi is NOT a kind benevolent saviour who invented Bitcoin to save the world. Satoshi invented Bitcoin and kept 1,000,000 Bitcoin for himself, in hope one day when Bitcoin becomes the single world currency he/his organisation will at least own 5% of Bitcoin, aka 5% of global purchasing power, at least.
The Fiat System is collapsing. If we crypto/bitcoin enthusiasts on the Reddit forum can see it, of course the guys at the top of the pyramid can see it, and they saw it long before we did. They did something about it, they invented Bitcoin.
And yes, it would take more than one computer nerd to come up with Bitcoin. It would have involved many years of work in complete secrecy by many number of experts with a lot of computing power. Which organisation fits the bill besides NSA? And yes they kept 1,000,000 Bitcoin.
FACT 2: Bitcoin's Sha 256 is a subset of cryptographic hash functions designed by the United States National Security Agency (NSA).
SHA-2 (Secure Hash Algorithm 2) is a set of cryptographic hash functions designed by the United States National Security Agency (NSA). The SHA-2 family consists of six hash functions with digests (hash values) that are 224, 256, 384 or 512 bits: SHA-224, SHA-256, SHA-384, SHA-512, SHA-512/224, SHA-512/256.
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/SHA-2
BOOM! Yes people, NSA actually came up with the backbone of Bitcoin. It is right under the spotlight. Who else, besides from NSA, could have taken NSA tech and use it to create Bitcoin?
FACT 3: If the Fed/NSA/US Government really wanted to destroy Bitcoin, they could have and would have done a 51% attack already, it is dirt cheap.
But no, instead they sent a hairless patsy like Brad Sherman to whine about it in public. Do you really think Sherman is the US government's best shot against Bitcoin?
To launch a 51% attack on Bitcoin, it only takes $8.4 billion USD in hardware, and a day run rate of $5 million USD to do so.
https://gobitcoin.io/tools/cost-51-attack/
To put things into perspective, the Fed just sold $27 billion USD worth of US Treasuries on 8th of May. Apple's market value is $859 billion USD. Yes NSA/Fed/US Government could easily break Bitcoin if they wanted to.
Once again. the 3 facts: FACT 1: "Satoshi" kept 1,000,000 Bitcoins for "himself". FACT 2: Bitcoin's Sha 256 is a subset of cryptographic hash functions designed by NSA FACT 3: If the Fed/NSA/US Government really wanted to destroy Bitcoin, they could have and would have done a 51% attack already, it is dirt cheap.
Conclusion: Yes Bitcoin is designed by the NSA/Fed/US Gov. That is absolutely fine because if anything it is actually sign that Bitcoin will actually flourish, given the implicit government backing Bitcoin has.
They pulled it off with Fiat Money for 80 years. They realised the fiat game is ending. They started a new game - Bitcoin!
submitted by kadudu888 to Bitcoin [link] [comments]

Terragreen – World’s first blockchain technology running on SHA – 384 algorithm

Terragreen – World’s first blockchain technology running on SHA – 384 algorithm
TerraGreen consists of a blockchain powered attempt for micromanaging biomass wastes from agricultural & forestry sectors which converts it to the renewable energy products through natural resources.
Moreover, for the Terragreen project, Terragreen would produce its own coins and these coins will be distributed to the general public for the crowdfunding. The investment made in the coins would be profitable to the major Biomass plant as well as to the general public where they can gain through their investment and plant can produce more amount of renewable products. These would help to increase the value of Terragreen coin and its products economically. Though its all about profit earnings and earning more funds.
https://preview.redd.it/4axcr2f8z5621.png?width=666&format=png&auto=webp&s=27caabe57955d8f71a59910a5357b682bae2ac2e
These renewable energy products, at the end of the process, will be in their greater heights of economic values. With TerraGreen Coin, consumers can directly participate or involve in the biomass waste management and production of renewable energy products, which in return support the green energy revolution.
TerraGreen is essentially a DAO (Decentralized Autonomous Organization), governed autonomously on the basis of pre-defined instructions in the form of smart contract. There are various smart contracts in a DAO.
The smart contracts delve into the realm of, but are not limited to, Combined Heat & Power Optimization (CHP), Synthetic Natural Gas, Hydrogen Production, Synthetic Fuels, SOFC, Green Chemistry, Activated Carbon, and Pulp.
This is where the blockchain technology and several sub-programs offered by TerraGreen Coin comes into the picture. Our goal is to create a truly sustainable, clean community development around the world while directly allowing consumers to directly participate in the renewable energy industry.
Types of blockchain used in Terragreen:
The Terragreen project decided to create their own blockchain, with very different properties than other cryptocurrencies, decoupling the layer from the core blockchain protocol, offering a radical new way to create online markets and programmable transactions that are as following:
Public blockchain:
Public blockchains are just that, public. Anyone who wants to read, write, or wish to connect a public blockchain can do so. Public chains are decentralized meaning no one body has control over the network, ensuring the data can’t be changed once if it is validated on the blockchain. It Simply indicates, anyone, anywhere, can use a public blockchain to input transactions and data as long as they are connected to the network.
In Terragreen, all the nodes connected in the network can see the transaction of each other and the entire activities taken by the individuals among the network.
Private Blockchain:
Blockchains that are private or permissioned work similarly to public blockchains but with access controls that restrict those that can join the network, meaning it operates like a centralized database system of present that limits access to certain users. Private Blockchains consists of one or multiple entities that control the network, which leads to the reliance on third-parties to transact.
A well-known example would be Hyperledger. Private blockchains can only be used by those who has been invited by the network’s administrators.
Centralized blockchain:
Centralized blockchains offer much more customized and control over the network to the organization deploying it as they can decide who gets to participate in the network. This signifies that not as much resources have to be invested in competing to secure the network which makes Centralized Blockchains more environment-friendly compared to their Decentralized counterparts.
In Terragreen centralized blockchain a group of users connected to centralized authority can only see the transactions and all the activities take placed between the connected nodes within the specific network that runs the transaction.
However, in a centralized network, only known and identified parties can transact on the ledger. Therefore, their transactions can be audited.
How blockchain technology works?
At the core of blockchains is their accord algorithm. This algorithm is based on SHA-384, which is one of the latest algorithm in todays world. This SHA- 384 algorithm is only used by the Terragreen. At present, the most generally utilized model is proof of work (PoW) .
Well, a blockchain is a chain of blocks, ordered in a network of non-trusted peers. Each block would reference the previous one and contains data, its own hash, and the hash of the previous block. All blocks can store an amount of money, a share of the company, a digital certificate of its own ownership, a vote during an election process, or any other values.
A block for an ecommerce transaction will contain the identifiers of the retailer and consumer as well, for example. Each block also has a hash. This hash is a value generated from a string of texts using a mathematical function.
TerraGreen Token Module
Firstly, we are going to create is a “Token Module” where “Tokens” comes under the TerraGreen system which includes various of trading goods. These goods are all about the coins, all loyalty points, gold certificates, shares, IOUs, in game items, and creamy brands etc. Since long, all the tokens module implements some basic features in a standard manner, this also concludes that our token will be instantly compatible with the TerraGreen wallet and any different client or contract that uses the same standards.
Terragreen token module comprises of IDE using Graphical user interface (GUI), where drag & drop feature is major com fort to the users.
The drag & drop features the device gestures, through which the user can select a virtual object by "grab it” and “drag it” to a particular location or onto another virtual object inside IDE.
Drag-Drop is a latest feature in today’s technology which is only available in our TerraGreen. This technique is not found in all the other software, user would find it as quick & fast-to-grasp this technique.
The token module of Terra green has an enhanced GUI features which are more convenient to the users to create its own token using terrageen token module.
TerraGreen tokens modules are being built on the formation of the blockchains. It’s tokens have different - different nodes through which it is accessible. And these nodes can be created using different names.
All these tokens are properties of entities. And if we add new field in node then these field will be available as token. Terragreen token module would require token generation and its return value properties. Token properties will comprise of the following:
• Name of the token
• Description of the token
• Data type must be provided, these data type will be used for text being processed.
The creators of the token will issue the token to others in exchange for Terragreen and sometimes bitcoin and other digital currencies.
Generally, there’s no requirement that tokens should be well distributed, although it is a decentralized application so the tokens should be owned by as many people as possible.
In cryptocurrency today, a terragreen Coin might be a great start. The perception to presale coins of a cryptocurrency or token of a Terragreen blockchain project will evolve in a crazy successful instrument to raise funds for the advancement of a new application.
submitted by tgncoin to u/tgncoin [link] [comments]

Terragreen – World’s first blockchain technology running on SHA – 384 algorithm

Terragreen – World’s first blockchain technology running on SHA – 384 algorithm


The TerraGreen project decided to create their own blockchain, with very different properties than other cryptocurrencies, decoupling the layer from the core blockchain protocol, offering a radical new way to create online markets and programmable transactions that are as following:
Public blockchain:
Public blockchains are just that, public. Anyone who wants to read, write, or wish to connect a public blockchain can do so. Public chains are decentralized meaning no one body has control over the network, ensuring the data can’t be changed once if it is validated on the blockchain. Simply indicates, anyone, anywhere, can use a public blockchain to input transactions and data as long as they are connected to the network.
In TerraGreen , all the nodes connected in the network can see the transaction of each other and the entire activities taken by the individuals among the network.
Private Blockchain:
Blockchains that are private or permission work similarly to public blockchains but with access controls that restrict those that can join the network, meaning it operates like a centralized database system of the present that limits access to certain users. Private Blockchains consists of one or multiple entities that control the network, which leads to the reliance on third-parties to transact.
A well-known example would be Hyperledger. Private blockchains can only be used by those who have been invited by the network’s administrators.
Centralized blockchain:
Centralized blockchains offer much more customized and control over the network to the organization deploying it as they can decide who gets to participate in the network. This signifies that not as much resources have to be invested in competing to secure the network which makes Centralized Blockchains more environment-friendly compared to their Decentralized counterparts.
In TerraGreen centralized blockchain, a group of users connected to centralized authority can only see the transactions and all the activities take placed between the connected nodes within the specific network that runs the transaction.
However, in a centralized network, only known and identified parties can transact on the ledger. Therefore, their transactions can be audited.
How blockchain technology works?
At the core of blockchains is their accord algorithm. This algorithm is based on SHA-384, which is one of the latest algorithms in today's world. This SHA- 384 algorithm is only used by the TerraGreen. At present, the most generally utilized model is proof of work (PoW) .
Well, a blockchain is a chain of blocks, ordered in a network of non-trusted peers. Each block would reference the previous one and contains data, its own hash, and the hash of the previous block. All blocks can store an amount of money, a share of the company, a digital certificate of its own ownership, a vote during an election process, or any other values.
A block for an ecommerce transaction will contain the identifiers of the retailer and consumer as well, for example. Each block also has a hash. This hash is a value generated from a string of texts using a mathematical function.
TerraGreen Token Module
Firstly, we are going to create is a “Token Module” where “Tokens” comes under the TerraGreen system which includes various of trading goods. These goods are all about the coins, all loyalty points, gold certificates, shares, IOUs, in game items, and creamy brands etc. Since long, all the tokens module implements some basic features in a standard manner, this also concludes that our token will be instantly compatible with the TerraGreen wallet and any different client or contract that uses the same standards.
TerraGreen token module comprises of IDE using Graphical user interface (GUI), where drag & drop feature is major com fort to the users.
The drag & drop features the device gestures, through which the user can select a virtual object by "grab it” and “drag it” to a particular location or onto another virtual object inside IDE.
Drag-Drop is a latest feature in today’s technology which is only available in our TerraGreen . This technique is not found in all the other software, user would find it as quick & fast-to-grasp this technique.
The token module of Terra green has an enhanced GUI features which are more convenient to the users to create its own token using TerraGreen token module.
TerraGreen tokens modules are being built on the formation of the blockchains. It’s tokens have different - different nodes through which it is accessible. And these nodes can be created using different names.
All these tokens are properties of entities. And if we add new field in node then these field will be available be as token. TerraGreen token module would require token generation and its return value properties.
Token properties will comprise of the following:
• Name of the token• Description of the token• Data type must be provided, these data type will be used for the text being processed.
The creators of the token will issue the token to others in exchange for TerraGreen and sometimes bitcoin and other digital currencies. Generally, there’s no requirement that tokens should be well distributed, although it is a decentralized application so the tokens should be owned by as many people as possible. In cryptocurrency today, a TerraGreen Coin might be a great start. The perception to presale coins of a cryptocurrency or token of a TerraGreen blockchain project will evolve in a crazy successful instrument to raise funds for the advancement of a new application.
submitted by baoanhq9 to CryptocurrencyICO [link] [comments]

How Will Blockchain Technology Redefine the Future of Renewable Energy?

How Will Blockchain Technology Redefine the Future of Renewable Energy?
When you enter the crypto world, you are bound to cross paths with the word ‘Mining’. The insanely large amounts of energy required in the mining process are something known to all but discussions on its negative impacts are avoided by all means. This is one such concern that will soon be added to the long list of global environmental problems. Global warming, climate change, air, water, and land pollution are posing as major threats to generations to come.
Crypto industry is growing at the speed of light and is offering a diverse range of unimaginable opportunities. The growth of this industry is not only developing economies around the world but also is adding to environmental concerns. Therefore, there is a rising demand for renewable energy resources. At this stage, using the benefits of cryptocurrency and blockchain technology to mitigate the adverse impacts of such problems is a solution many would be seeking.
TerraGreen is a blockchain based renewable energy trading platform, that develops energy-efficient cryptocurrency to generate renewable energy products for a sustainable ecosystem.
The idea behind the platform
The main focus is to connect the consumers of renewable energy resources directly with the producers. The consumers can influence how the energy is produced and what it will be used for. The consumers and producers will be connected through the TGN coin on the platform.
TGN Coin
➢ Distributed on global and own trading platforms, and secured by renewable energy smart contract. The coin can be exchanged through online exchanges for other digital assets and/or fiat currencies.
➢ The coin will enable investment in the energy sector, availing discounts for purchase of green products and services from industries, in the long run.
➢ As per the Paris Agreement to mitigate climate change, TGN may be used to revive the carbon trade system via crypto carbon credits
➢ Value of the coin will be defined by the amount of green energy committed to being produced by the producer.
➢ Green energy producers will be able to directly trade with both users and investors using the coin. They can sell energy in advance and raise capital for setting up renewable energy plants.
TerraGreen Wallet:
A portal to dApp on the TerraGreen Blockchain that enables to hold and secure TerraGreen’s other crypto-assets built on Terragreen, to write, deploy & use smart contracts.
➢ Bill payments can be directly made from the wallet allowing the use of a combination of fiat and cryptocurrency.
➢ Transaction fee for the payments service is 0.0001 TGN.
➢ The Wallet app is based on dApp, enabling users to participate in various campaigns and access to exclusive features.
➢ Coin protocol is based on SHA-384 Algorithm, thereby providing a secure connection.
TerraGreen ICO
The ICO Crowd sale will unfold in four phases starting from Jan 21, with a minimum purchase of 1000 TGN.
➔ The first phase is offering 27 million TGN at a discount of 20% for any amount and 30% for above $5000 until Feb 4 at a price of $0.1/TGN. The effective discount from Feb 5 — Feb 18 will be 18% for any amount and 30% for above $7000 at the price of $0.11/TGN.
➔ The second phase is offering 40.5 million TGN at a price of $0.12/TGN till Mar 10 and $0.13/TGN thereafter till Mar 17.
➔ The third phase is offering 27 million TGN at a price of $0.14/TGN till Apr 07 and $0.16/TGN thereafter till Apr 14.
➔ The fourth phase is offering 13.5 million TGN at a price of $0.18/TGN till Apr 25 and $0.20/TGN thereafter till May 02.
Currently, the currencies accepted are BTC, LTC, ETH, BCH, ETC, and TGN. However, TerraGreen is working on an update to make space for more cryptocurrencies in the future. USA and China are the restricted areas.

TerraGreen is making a unique attempt at micromanaging biomass wastes and efficiently converting them into renewable energy products. Using the blockchain technology, the platform invites more companies to contribute to building a waste to energy infrastructure. The platform has an opportunity to become a leading digital energy platform with the concept of waste-to-energy, carbon-neutrality, and decentralization of the industry.
The project addresses the problem of global biomass waste and provides a constructive solution to convert it into renewable energy.
The platform is not only worth investing in but also displays an urgency to realize the environmental problems and take a step towards a green revolution. #tokensale #crypto #blockchain #bitcoin #eth
submitted by baoanhq9 to ico [link] [comments]

Terragreen – World’s first blockchain technology running on SHA – 384 algorithm

Terragreen – World’s first blockchain technology running on SHA – 384 algorithm
TerraGreen consists of a blockchain powered attempt for micromanaging biomass wastes from agricultural & forestry sectors which converts it to the renewable energy products through natural resources.
Moreover, for the Terragreen project, Terragreen would produce its own coins and these coins will be distributed to the general public for the crowdfunding. The investment made in the coins would be profitable to the major Biomass plant as well as to the general public where they can gain through their investment and plant can produce more amount of renewable products. These would help to increase the value of Terragreen coin and its products economically. Though its all about profit earnings and earning more funds.

https://preview.redd.it/5y1ene4tyxd21.png?width=666&format=png&auto=webp&s=eb5b28da912379ffa5a046a1b8874c780d40db35
These renewable energy products, at the end of the process, will be in their greater heights of economic values. With TerraGreen Coin, consumers can directly participate or involve in the biomass waste management and production of renewable energy products, which in return support the green energy revolution.
TerraGreen is essentially a DAO (Decentralized Autonomous Organization), governed autonomously on the basis of pre-defined instructions in the form of smart contract. There are various smart contracts in a DAO.
The smart contracts delve into the realm of, but are not limited to, Combined Heat & Power Optimization (CHP), Synthetic Natural Gas, Hydrogen Production, Synthetic Fuels, SOFC, Green Chemistry, Activated Carbon, and Pulp.
This is where the blockchain technology and several sub-programs offered by TerraGreen Coin comes into the picture. Our goal is to create a truly sustainable, clean community development around the world while directly allowing consumers to directly participate in the renewable energy industry.
Types of blockchain used in Terragreen:
The Terragreen project decided to create their own blockchain, with very different properties than other cryptocurrencies, decoupling the layer from the core blockchain protocol, offering a radical new way to create online markets and programmable transactions that are as following:
Public blockchain:
Public blockchains are just that, public. Anyone who wants to read, write, or wish to connect a public blockchain can do so. Public chains are decentralized meaning no one body has control over the network, ensuring the data can’t be changed once if it is validated on the blockchain. It Simply indicates, anyone, anywhere, can use a public blockchain to input transactions and data as long as they are connected to the network.
In Terragreen, all the nodes connected in the network can see the transaction of each other and the entire activities taken by the individuals among the network.
Private Blockchain:
Blockchains that are private or permissioned work similarly to public blockchains but with access controls that restrict those that can join the network, meaning it operates like a centralized database system of present that limits access to certain users. Private Blockchains consists of one or multiple entities that control the network, which leads to the reliance on third-parties to transact.
A well-known example would be Hyperledger. Private blockchains can only be used by those who has been invited by the network’s administrators.
Centralized blockchain:
Centralized blockchains offer much more customized and control over the network to the organization deploying it as they can decide who gets to participate in the network. This signifies that not as much resources have to be invested in competing to secure the network which makes Centralized Blockchains more environment-friendly compared to their Decentralized counterparts.
In Terragreen centralized blockchain a group of users connected to centralized authority can only see the transactions and all the activities take placed between the connected nodes within the specific network that runs the transaction.
However, in a centralized network, only known and identified parties can transact on the ledger. Therefore, their transactions can be audited.
How blockchain technology works?
At the core of blockchains is their accord algorithm. This algorithm is based on SHA-384, which is one of the latest algorithm in todays world. This SHA- 384 algorithm is only used by the Terragreen. At present, the most generally utilized model is proof of work (PoW) .
Well, a blockchain is a chain of blocks, ordered in a network of non-trusted peers. Each block would reference the previous one and contains data, its own hash, and the hash of the previous block. All blocks can store an amount of money, a share of the company, a digital certificate of its own ownership, a vote during an election process, or any other values.
A block for an ecommerce transaction will contain the identifiers of the retailer and consumer as well, for example. Each block also has a hash. This hash is a value generated from a string of texts using a mathematical function.
TerraGreen Token Module
Firstly, we are going to create is a “Token Module” where “Tokens” comes under the TerraGreen system which includes various of trading goods. These goods are all about the coins, all loyalty points, gold certificates, shares, IOUs, in game items, and creamy brands etc. Since long, all the tokens module implements some basic features in a standard manner, this also concludes that our token will be instantly compatible with the TerraGreen wallet and any different client or contract that uses the same standards.
Terragreen token module comprises of IDE using Graphical user interface (GUI), where drag & drop feature is major com fort to the users.
The drag & drop features the device gestures, through which the user can select a virtual object by "grab it” and “drag it” to a particular location or onto another virtual object inside IDE.
Drag-Drop is a latest feature in today’s technology which is only available in our TerraGreen. This technique is not found in all the other software, user would find it as quick & fast-to-grasp this technique.
The token module of Terra green has an enhanced GUI features which are more convenient to the users to create its own token using terrageen token module.
TerraGreen tokens modules are being built on the formation of the blockchains. It’s tokens have different - different nodes through which it is accessible. And these nodes can be created using different names.
All these tokens are properties of entities. And if we add new field in node then these field will be available as token. Terragreen token module would require token generation and its return value properties. Token properties will comprise of the following:
• Name of the token
• Description of the token
• Data type must be provided, these data type will be used for text being processed.
The creators of the token will issue the token to others in exchange for Terragreen and sometimes bitcoin and other digital currencies.
Generally, there’s no requirement that tokens should be well distributed, although it is a decentralized application so the tokens should be owned by as many people as possible.
In cryptocurrency today, a terragreen Coin might be a great start. The perception to presale coins of a cryptocurrency or token of a Terragreen blockchain project will evolve in a crazy successful instrument to raise funds for the advancement of a new application.
submitted by terragreencoin to u/terragreencoin [link] [comments]

1996 NSA paper on digital currency - Bitcoin?

Hmmm.... NSA wrote a paper on digital currency in 1996
http://groups.csail.mit.edu/mac/classes/6.805/articles/money/nsamint/nsamint.htm
there's someone named Tatsuaki Okamoto who was involved, the name is close to Satoshi Nakamoto when arranged, an anagram if you will....
As many of you know NSA is also behind SHA-256 which Bitcoin uses
"SHA-2 is a set of cryptographic hash functions (SHA-224, SHA-256, SHA-384, SHA-512) designed by the U.S. National Security Agency (NSA) ..."
www.wikipedia.org/wiki/SHA-2
submitted by FlyGuy74 to Bitcoin [link] [comments]

Rolling UTXO set hashes | Pieter Wuille | May 15 2017

Pieter Wuille on May 15 2017:
Hello all,
I would like to discuss a way of computing a UTXO set hash that is
very efficient to update, but does not support any compact proofs of
existence or non-existence.
Much has been written on the topic of various data structures and
derived hashes for the UTXO/TXO set before (including Alan Reiner's
trust-free lite nodes [1], Peter Todd's TXO MMR commitments [2] [3],
or Bram Cohen's TXO bitfield [4]). They all provide interesting extra
functionality or tradeoffs, but require invasive changes to the P2P
protocol or how wallets work, or force nodes to maintain their
database in a normative fashion. Instead, here I focus on an efficient
hash that supports nothing but comparing two UTXO sets. However, it is
not incompatible with any of those other approaches, so we can gain
some of the advantages of a UTXO hash without adopting something that
may be incompatible with future protocol enhancements.
  1. Incremental hashing
Computing a hash of the UTXO set is easy when it does not need
efficient updates, and when we can assume a fixed serialization with a
normative ordering for the data in it - just serialize the whole thing
and hash it. As different software or releases may use different
database models for the UTXO set, a solution that is order-independent
would seem preferable.
This brings us to the problem of computing a hash of unordered data.
Several approaches that accomplish this through incremental hashing
were suggested in [5], including XHASH, AdHash, and MuHash. XHASH
consists of first hashing all the set elements independently, and
XORing all those hashes together. This is insecure, as Gaussian
elimination can easily find a subset of random hashes that XOR to a
given value. AdHash/MuHash are similar, except addition/multiplication
modulo a large prime are used instead of XOR. Wagner [6] showed that
attacking XHASH or AdHash is an instance of a generalized birthday
problem (called the k-sum problem in his paper, with unrestricted k),
and gives a O(22*sqrt(n-1)) algorithm to attack it (for n-bit
hashes). As a result, AdHash with 256-bit hashes only has 31 bits of
security.
Thankfully, [6] also shows that the k-sum problem cannot be
efficiently solved in groups in which the discrete logarithm problem
is hard, as an efficient k-sum solver can be used to compute discrete
logarithms. As a result, MuHash modulo a sufficiently large safe prime
is provably secure under the DL assumption. Common guidelines on
security parameters [7] say that 3072-bit DL has about 128 bits of
security. A final 256-bit hash can be applied to the 3072-bit result
without loss of security to reduce the final size.
An alternative to multiplication modulo a prime is using an elliptic
curve group. Due to the ECDLP assumption, which the security of
Bitcoin signatures already relies on, this also results in security
against k-sum solving. This approach is used in the Elliptic Curve
Multiset Hash (ECMH) in [8]. For this to work, we must "hash onto a
curve point" in a way that results in points without known discrete
logarithm. The paper suggests using (controversial) binary elliptic
curves to make that operation efficient. If we only consider
secp256k1, one approach is just reading potential X coordinates from a
PRNG until one is found that has a corresponding Y coordinate
according to the curve equation. On average, 2 iterations are needed.
A constant time algorithm to hash onto the curve exists as well [9],
but it is only slightly faster and is much more complicated to
implement.
AdHash-like constructions with a sufficiently large intermediate hash
can be made secure against Wagner's algorithm, as suggested in [10].
4160-bit hashes would be needed for 128 bits of security. When
repetition is allowed, [8] gives a stronger attack against AdHash,
suggesting that as much as 400000 bits are needed. While repetition is
not directly an issue for our use case, it would be nice if
verification software would not be required to check for duplicated
entries.
  1. Efficient addition and deletion
Interestingly, both ECMH and MuHash not only support adding set
elements in any order but also deleting in any order. As a result, we
can simply maintain a running sum for the UTXO set as a whole, and
add/subtract when creating/spending an output in it. In the case of
MuHash it is slightly more complicated, as computing an inverse is
relatively expensive. This can be solved by representing the running
value as a fraction, and multiplying created elements into the
numerator and spent elements into the denominator. Only when the final
hash is desired, a single modular inverse and multiplication is needed
to combine the two.
As the update operations are also associative, H(a)+H(b)+H(c)+H(d) can
in fact be computed as (H(a)+H(b)) + (H(c)+H(d)). This implies that
all of this is perfectly parallellizable: each thread can process an
arbitrary subset of the update operations, allowing them to be
efficiently combined later.
  1. Comparison of approaches
Numbers below are based on preliminary benchmarks on a single thread
of a i7-6820HQ CPU running at 3.4GHz.
(1) (MuHash) Multiplying 3072-bit hashes mod 23072 - 1103717 (the
largest 3072-bit safe prime).
* Needs a fast modular multiplication/inverse implementation. * Using SHA512 + ChaCha20 for generating the hashes takes 1.2us per element. * Modular multiplication using GMP takes 1.5us per element (2.5us 
with a 60-line C+asm implementation).
* 768 bytes for maintaining a running sum (384 for numerator, 384 
for denominator)
* Very common security assumption. Even if the DL assumption would 
be broken (but no k-sum algorithm faster than Wagner's is found), this
still maintains 110 bits of security.
(2) (ECMH) Adding secp256k1 EC points
* Much more complicated than the previous approaches when 
implementing from scratch, but almost no extra complexity when ECDSA
secp256k1 signature validation is already implemented.
* Using SHA512 + libsecp256k1's point decompression for generating 
the points takes 11us per element on average.
* Addition/subtracting of N points takes 5.25us + 0.25us*N. * 64 bytes for a running sum. * Identical security assumption as Bitcoin's signatures. 
Using the numbers above, we find that:
24ms (2) 100ms
block takes (1) 3ms (2) 0.5ms
Note that while (2) has higher CPU usage than (1) in general, it has
lower latency when using precomputed per-transaction aggregates. Using
such aggregates is also more feasible as they're only 64 bytes rather
than 768. Because of simplicity, (1) has my preference.
Overall, these numbers are sufficiently low (note that they can be
parallellized) that it would be reasonable for full nodes and/or other
software to always maintain one of them, and effectively have a
rolling cryptographical checksum of the UTXO set at all times.
  1. Use cases
computation. This currently requires minutes of I/O and CPU, as it
serializes and hashes the entire UTXO set. A rolling set hash would
make this instant, making the whole RPC much more usable for sanity
checking.
blocks/UTXO sets.
the past few blocks (computed on the fly), a consistency check can be
done that recomputes it based on the database.
[1] https://bitcointalk.org/index.php?topic=88208.0
[2] https://lists.linuxfoundation.org/pipermail/bitcoin-dev/2016-May/012715.html
[3] https://lists.linuxfoundation.org/pipermail/bitcoin-dev/2017-February/013591.html
[4] https://lists.linuxfoundation.org/pipermail/bitcoin-dev/2017-March/013928.html
[5] https://cseweb.ucsd.edu/~mihipapers/inchash.pdf
[6] https://people.eecs.berkeley.edu/~daw/papers/genbday.html
[7] https://www.keylength.com/
[8] https://arxiv.org/pdf/1601.06502.pdf
[9] https://www.di.ens.f~fouque/pub/latincrypt12.pdf
[10] http://csrc.nist.gov/groups/ST/hash/sha-3/Aug2014/documents/gligoroski_paper_sha3_2014_workshop.pdf
Cheers,

Pieter
original: https://lists.linuxfoundation.org/pipermail/bitcoin-dev/2017-May/014337.html
submitted by dev_list_bot to bitcoin_devlist [link] [comments]

Changelog 4.2.6 (18 Dec 2017)

Version 4.2.6
Version 4.2.5
Version 4.2.4
Version 4.2.3
Version 4.2.2
Version 4.2.1
Version 4.2
Version 4.1.2
Version 4.1.1
Version 4.1
IMPORTANT: CcMiner 2.2.2 requires nVidia Drivers 384.xx or later for Cuda9 support.
Version 4.0.7
Version 4.0.6
Version 4.0.5
Version 4.0.4
Version 4.0.3
Version 4.0.2
Version 4.0.1
Version 4.0
submitted by exigesDB to AwesomeMiner [link] [comments]

Appeal to authority: A failure of trust

Yesterday a fantastic article was published about Dr Craig Wright. It is well worth a read. The article mentions:
Now the plausibility of the Wired story did take a hit when Greg Maxwell proclaimed that the GPG keys mentioned in the emails could not have been created in 2009. This claim has been been disputed by an anonymously authored paper (likely written by Wright himself), nevertheless we still need to adjust our probabilities accordingly based on these two claims.
Coincidentally are researchers here at hoaxChain happened to be working on analyzing this paper, so we thought we would share our views
The paper discusses one of the four PGP keys in the Tulip Trust document, in particular the signature belonging to our founder, Dr Wright. The PGP key is dated from 2008, however, Mr Maxwell (nullc) has claimed that "The PGP key being used was clearly backdated: its metadata contains cipher-suites which were not widely used until later software". The research aims to disprove what Mr Maxwell said. Before proving Mr Maxwell wrong, the paper explains that one should not trust Mr Maxwell, but instead verify oneself, otherwise one is falling for the appeal to authority fallacy. Indeed, "appeal to authority" is the title of the paper. As the document says:
The logical fallacy of an appeal to authority is made whenever we try to justify an idea through the citing of expertise as the reason to hold that idea. However, even experts are subject to validation. The nature of science is of a system derived through empirical proof and evidence. Generally, an appeal to authority is fallacious when we cite those who have no special expertise. This is of greater concern when we have an individual believed or purporting to be an expert who abuses trust.
The importance of this statement is that Maxwell has firmly asserted that the algorithms, “8,2,9,10,11” have only been added from a later period in 2009. It is stated that the code tree was built on the 09th July 2009 and that this was released on the 04th September of the same year. The challenge to the reader is to engage in an independent scientific examination of the evidence presented.
Changes to the default hash algorithm preferences - 9 July 2009
 - /* SHA-1 */ - strcat(dummy_string,"H2 "); - if (!openpgp_md_test_algo(DIGEST_ALGO_SHA256)) - strcat(dummy_string,"H8 "); + /* The default hash algo order is: + SHA-256, SHA-1, SHA-384, SHA-512, SHA-224. + Ordering SHA-1 before SHA-384 might be + viewed as a bit strange; it is done because + we expect that soon enough SHA-3 will be + available and at that point there should + be no more need for SHA-384 etc. Anyway + this order is just a default and can easily + be changed by a config option. */ + if (!openpgp_md_test_algo (DIGEST_ALGO_SHA256)) + strcat (dummy_string, "H8 "); + + strcat (dummy_string, "H2 "); /* SHA-1 */ + + if (!openpgp_md_test_algo (DIGEST_ALGO_SHA384)) + strcat (dummy_string, "H9 "); + + if (!openpgp_md_test_algo (DIGEST_ALGO_SHA512)) + strcat (dummy_string, "H10 "); + + if (!openpgp_md_test_algo (DIGEST_ALGO_SHA224)) + strcat (dummy_string, "H11 "); - /* RIPEMD160 */ - if (!openpgp_md_test_algo(DIGEST_ALGO_RMD160)) - strcat(dummy_string,"H3 "); 
Source: gnupg
Indeed, one should not trust Mr Maxwell, but instead the claims should be verified. As shown above, the default hash algorithms were actually added in July 2009 as Mr Maxwell claimed. By reading the above code you can verify this for yourself. Therefore, although our advanced scientific research suggests that the appeal to authority fallacy is a genuine thing, it happens not to be relevant in this case. One may then question the title of this paper, which after reading the above code, almost seems to be a completely stupid title.
However, although Mr Maxwell was correct about when the algorithms were added to the software, he is still wrong in saying that the key was backdated. As the paper goes on to explain, in 2008 one could still have manually changed the hash functions used to the ones which were specified at a later date, as the default algorithms. Actually all the hash functions specified in 2009 were available in 2008, the paper even provides complex research and analysis proving these hash functions were published as far back as 2007, which is earlier than 2008 , when the key was generated. To further prove this is possible, the paper even provides screenshots which involve changing the preferred hashing algorithms to the ones specified in 2009, with a version of software from 2008. As the paper explains:
Returning to our example, we can issue the “setpref” sub-command at the command line. This allows the owner of a PGP private key to change the set of hash algorithms used by the key. This change is completed using the following command:
setpref SHA256 SHA1 SHA384 SHA512 SHA224 AES256 AES192 AES CAST5 ZLIB BZIP2 ZIP Uncompressed
hoaxChain can now reveal this amazing sequence of events. For some reason, when creating his PGP key in 2008, Dr Wright manually changed the hashing algorithms used by the software. Then, in a remarkable coincidence, in 2009, the default hashing algorithms for this piece of software happened to change to the ones Dr Wright manually specified a year earlier, including in the exact order Dr Wright used. This is even more of a remarkable coincidence, given that the notes made when the change occurred in 2009 mention that the hashing order "might be viewed as a bit strange". The above implies that Mr Maxwell is wrong and therefore either he is a liar or he is incompetent, or as the paper brilliantly puts it:
We may either conclude that Gregory Maxwell understood what he was asserting and has intentionally misled the community in stating that the PGP keys referenced had been backdated, or that a Bitcoin core developer did not understand the workings of PGP sufficiently.
submitted by hoaxchain to Bitcoin [link] [comments]

What cryptographic hash is a private key when encrypted ?

Sorry noob question what is the algorithm of the encrypted private key that secures the bitcoins ?
What does all this mean i just thought it was 256 or is that the bitcoin network ???
submitted by Liquid00 to Bitcoin [link] [comments]

Long term quantum protection

Hello everybody. We run an economy based on cryptography, so let me school you on what is quantum resistant in crypto right now (and if a crypto is not, how to protect yourself)
Bitcoin is protected by sha 256. Your bitcoin address is a hash of your public key. That means the bitcoin address cannot be used to hack your wallet in a quantum attack scenario, however, all bets are off with your public key.
What we need to do. 1. Bitcoin needs to upgrade to sha 384 2. Everyone needs a hot wallet and a cold storage wallet. The cold wallet is ONLY used to send and receive funds from the hot wallet. in this manner nobody reveals their public keys. ideally, this should be built into existing wallet software so that each transaction done to hot wallet creates an off chain payment channel to cold storage and then sends the payment from cold to hot, and then transmits it. Every single transaction needs to be secured in this manner. Everything needs to be the lightning network, or it is not secure.
Cryptocurrencies that are currently safe from quantum attacks without additional user steps: IOTA. QTUM. NEO. (on the roadmap, currently not q-resistant though)
We need to have quantum secure systems, because its only 1-2 years off. Without it, any quantum attack on bitcoin would create massive fud, and people would not know what is secure and what is not. It would cause the biggest bitcoin crash ever, and it must be headed off. The people who can head off this long term impending disaster are wallet devs. We have 1-2 years to prepare for the storm, but if we don't it won't sink our little boat, but it would damage it.
To preserve value, if within 1 year, you don't see a wallet offering built in hot swapped cold storage, I would switch all bitcoin to QTUM or IOTA. I think that 1 year is the soonest we will see quantum attacks, but 2-5 years is the latest we will see them. Remember, its not just you losing bitcoins. It would be the ecosystem if this is not done right. Don't take action yet, btc will hit 5k this year, but be mindful. It is a lurking danger.
submitted by frostfire1337 to Bitcoin [link] [comments]

Bigeathash:Encrypt and Decrypt hash SHA 256 Algorithm Şifreleme Algoritmaları - SHA256,SHA384 ve SHA512 How to quickly verify MD5, SHA1 and SHA2 (256, 384, 512 ... Node.js With Passport Authentication  Full Project - YouTube

SHA-384 36. Descriptions of SHA-256, SHA-384, and SHA-512 1. In tro duction An n-bit hash is a map from arbitrary length messages to hash values.An-bit crypto gr aphic hash is an n-bit hash whic his one-way 1 and c ol lision-r esistant. 2 Suc h functions are imp ortan t cryptographic primitiv es used for suc h things as digital signatures and passw ord protection. Curren t p opular hashes pro ... SHA-384 is identical to SHA-512, except that: the initial hash values <code>h0</code> through <code>h7</code> are different (taken from the 9th through 16th primes), and; the output is constructed by omitting <code>h6</code> and <code>h7</code>. h[0..7] := 0xcbbb9d5dc1059ed8, 0x629a292a367cd507, 0x9159015a3070dd17, 0x152fecd8f70e5939, 0x67332667ffc00b31, 0x8eb44a8768581511, 0xdb0c2e0d64f98fa7 ... Only reason I could think of using SHA-384 vs. SHA-512 is due to Digest need for signing. For example, if you are adopting ECDSA-384 signing, it requires 384 hash digest, not 512 bit. Ideally, you could throw out any 128-bit from 512-bit. But receiving end need know which 128-bit you throw out. So only difference between SHA384 and SHA512 is to ... SHA-512/t . SHA-512/t is identical to SHA-512 except that: the initial hash values h0 through h7 are given by the SHA-512/t IV generation function, the output is constructed by truncating the concatenation of h0 through h7 at t bits, t equal to 384 is not allowed, instead SHA-384 should be used as specified, and Same old Ransom Scam email, I have video of you on pornsite Pay me by Bitcoin or I will release to everyone etc etc. The use a very old password from about 15 years ago. Received: from mail-oln040092253080.outbound.protection.outlook.com (TLSv1.2:ECDHE-RSA-AES256-GCM-SHA384:256) (Exim 4.89) (envelope-from <

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Bigeathash:Encrypt and Decrypt hash

What is SHA 256 - How sha256 algorithm works sha 256 bitcoin sha 256 blockchain sha2 in hindi - Duration: 10:28. Geeks Prix 5,840 views. 10:28. Cracking a Password Hash with John (JTR ... This video is unavailable. Watch Queue Queue. Watch Queue Queue In this video we will build a complete authentication app with login, register and access control using Node.js, Express, Passport, Mongoose and more. Sponso... This video is unavailable. Watch Queue Queue. Watch Queue Queue C# Hashing with salt using SHA-256, SHA-384, SHA-512 - Duration: 27:32. Dawisko1 23,718 views. 27:32 . What Marine Recruits Go Through In Boot Camp - Earning The Title - Making Marines on Parris ...

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