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The deepest report: Bitmain's self-help history

The deepest report: Bitmain's self-help history
The original intention of this article is to let readers understand the causes and consequences of Bitmain internal fighting, but after writing it, I found that it is not so much internal fighting as it is a long history of self-help.
The story is very long. Let's adjust the timeline to the eve of December 17, 2018. That was one of Bitmain's most critical moments and the beginning of a series of subsequent stories.
1. Self-immolation In September 2018, Bitmain's financial department warned management that the company's cash flow has become very tight and operating costs must be reduced to allow the company to continue. The blockchain unicorn, which is valued at more than 15 billion U.S. dollars, is crippled in the run and struggling to break the corner.
In 2017, Bitmain made a profit of 1 billion US dollars In the first half of 2018, Bitmain made a profit of 1 billion US dollars Three rounds of financing, a total of 800 million US dollars Net assets should exceed 3 billion U.S. dollars In September 2018, Bitmain had tight cash flow and was on the verge of bankruptcy
A simple comparison, it is not difficult to see that Bitmain's ability to make money is incredible, and its ability to burn money is even more extreme.
How does Bitmain burn money? Do you pour cash into gasoline and burn it, or hire a lot of employees to stuff the banknotes one by one into the shredder? The actual situation is closer to the latter.
The following data can help readers quickly learn Bitmain's money burning skills.
At the beginning of 2018, the entire cryptocurrency market has entered a bear market, but Bitmain's monthly operating costs have been rising wildly. Operating costs have risen from 10 million US dollars at the beginning of the year to 50 million US dollars at the end of the year.
Large-scale expansion of the R&D team is one of the main reasons. The HR who once worked at Bitmain revealed that the company once hired more than 50 employees a day and nearly 500 employees a month. Even so, it was criticized for its slow recruitment speed. The cash consumption in this area is approximately $250 million.
Operating costs are just the tip of the iceberg. Excessive chip trial production can become a classic case of project management courses. Readers who pay attention to Cryptocurrency mining can easily find that Bitmain is still working hard to clear the inventory of Antminer S9 in 2019. As the co-CEO, Ketuan Zhan did not listen to the advice or even warnings of the Finance Department, insisting on the implementation of Excessive chip trial production, resulting in a large accumulation of inventory and tight capital turnover. Another CEO, Jihan Wu, once revealed that the loss of Excessive chip trial production to the company was approximately US$1.5 billion.
Large-scale expansion of the R&D team is one of the main reasons. The HR who once worked at Bitmain revealed that the company once hired more than 50 employees a day and nearly 500 employees a month. Even so, it was criticized for its slow recruitment speed. The cash consumption in this area is approximately $250 million.
The BM1393 chip incident is even more incredible. Chip expert Ketuan Zhan invested a lot of money on a failed chip, and finally failed again. From 2017 to 2018, Bitmain has failed Trial production of mining machine chips at least 4 times, including 16nm, 12nm and 10nm chips, of which 16nm Trial production failed twice, thus losing at least US$1.2 billion.
It is rumored that Bitmain still holds a billion U.S. dollars worth of cryptocurrency in a state of floating loss. In view of the rebound in the market in 2020, we will not comment temporarily, waiting for the correct answer from the cryptocurrency market. But the losses pointed out in the previous article are all irreversible.
2. Sole power
In September 2018, Bitmain's management realized the seriousness of the problem. It turned out that the company's money could be squandered. As a result, the management began to discuss self-help plans, and the most reasonable and effective way was obviously to lay off employees.
The probation period for newly hired employees at Bitmain is half a year, and the probationary salary is 100% of the official salary, there is no difference. Once layoffs are made, new employees who have not passed the probationary period will be the main layoff targets. The department managed by Ketuan Zhan will face large-scale layoffs. The layoff plan is strongly opposed by Ketuan Zhan. Bitmain can only temporarily abandon the layoffs and replace it with continuous reductions. For marketing and travel expenses, a budget committee was established to strictly approve every expenditure. At the same time, employee benefits, such as reimbursement of taxi expenses, breakfast supply, snacks and drinks, etc., have also been abolished, and even the tradition of giving employees 400 yuan worth of BTC/BCH every month has been stopped.
In the face of huge cash flow pressure, trivial savings is obviously of no avail. Soon, the management again discussed the layoff plan, and it has reached the point where it has to be laid off.
In December 2018, Jihan Wu began to organize all entrepreneurial veterans and business backbones to persuade Ketuan Zhan to agree to layoffs, but Ketuan Zhan still insisted not to layoffs. The persuasion process was very unsuccessful. After many meetings and intense debates, Bitmain executives were caught in a dilemma of wasting time with Ketuan Zhan.
In this process, the shortcomings of the dual CEO system began to appear, and the relationship between the two CEOs gradually deteriorated.
On the night of December 16th, Ketuan Zhan reconvened the management meeting, and more than 30 managements who were present were asked to hand over their mobile phones. At this time, Jihan Wu was on a business trip in Hong Kong and was busy with listing related work.
In the meeting, Ketuan Zhan's core content was three items:
(1) Bitmain cannot have two CEOs, only one CEO and must be Ketuan Zhan. Ketuan Zhan said that he met an old leader during a business trip. He hadn't seen each other for many years. The old leader suggested that the company can only have one CEO, and it must be him. Ketuan Zhan feels that this is a kind of fate, an opportunity given by God.
(2) Ketuan Zhan believes that the company's cash flow problems, the biggest responsibility is the inability of the financial department. To prove his point, Ketuan Zhan announced Bitmain's financial data at the meeting. In the evening, employees in Taiwan began to post messages on social media, saying that the company's capital chain was broken and the top management was split.
(3) If Ketuan Zhan is not supported, the option will be cancelled and the equity will be voided.
Hearing about this, Jihan Wu, who lives in Hong Kong, sent a WeChat message to the management who are attending the meeting.

https://preview.redd.it/zkj2d44tqid51.jpg?width=1080&format=pjpg&auto=webp&s=9251c1f7308e155d7911d5969e71091a5ad5e14a
On the afternoon of December 17, 2018, Jihan Wu returned to Beijing to negotiate with Ketuan Zhan all night, and finally reached a consensus in the early morning. Bitmain co-founder Yuesheng Ge announced the results of the negotiations. Jihan Wu and Ketuan Zhan ceased to serve as CEOs, and Haichao Wang served as CEO. Jihan Wu voluntarily backed down and Ketuan Zhan served as chairman.
The "12.17 Incident" had a very bad impact on Bitmain, especially the disclosure of Bitmain's financial status, which caused vendors to start dunning. The loan that had just been negotiated with the Bank of Beijing was cancelled the next day. Jihan Wu's resignation as CEO caused an uproar in the industry, and it became a hot topic among Cryptocurrency mining, blockchain practitioners, and investor communities. The media focused their interpretation on Bitmain's series of incidents, and generally looked down upon its ongoing Hong Kong IPO, believing that the high-level changes had already signaled the failure of the IPO in advance.
On Christmas December 24, 2018, Bitmain finally began to implement the layoff plan. This long-delayed “correct decision” was achieved after a stalemate for nearly three months. The AI ​​teams in Beijing, Singapore, Taiwan, and Shanghai have laid off more than 50% of their employees. The Israeli R&D center was closed and Shenzhen New Species Technology Co., Ltd., which had been acquired for only ten months, was dissolved, and all employees were laid off. Copernicus, Bitmain's top blockchain development team, was not spared and was wiped out in this layoff. Copernicus and some of the laid-off employees joined the new company Matrixport co-founded by Jihan Wu and Yuesheng Ge, headquartered in Singapore.
3. Past events when starting a business
After the "12.17 Incident", Jihan Wu gradually faded out of Bitmain's management affairs and turned his attention to the IPO and new company. And this is one of Jihan Wu's major mistakes, he began to let Ketuan Zhan manage Bitmain alone.
In fact, as early as 2013, Jihan Wu planted hidden dangers.
Jihan Wu, an investment banker, was the earliest translator of the Bitcoin white paper. He began to get involved in the cryptocurrency mining industry in 2012. The disappearance of Kaomao and Nangua Zhang's ticket skipping led Jihan Wu to decide to develop his own chip.
In 2013, Jihan Wu established his own mining machine company. Together with Yuesheng Ge, who was only 20 years old, he found Ketuan Zhan, an integrated circuit designer of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, to create the protagonist of this article, and later the digital Cryptocurrency mining giant, Bitmain.
Jihan Wu promised Ketuan Zhan that every time a mining machine chip was successfully developed, he would give some shares to the Ketuan Zhan team. At that time, the company founded by Ketuan Zhan was on the eve of falling apart. In order to regroup the team, Ketuan Zhan promised to share half of his shares with the team members. Unfortunately, this is just a bad check. With the rapid development of Bitmain and higher and higher valuations, the expanding Ketuan Zhan almost monopolized all the shares.
Like many startups, Bitmain encountered many difficulties in its early days, and many jobs had to be done by the boss. For example, in the chip design and production process in the second half of 2013, Bitmain was caught in a dilemma of insufficient funds. Jihan Wu personally raised funds and met with TSMC’s sales to persuade TSMC to accept the production needs of a start-up company. Jihan Wu also participated in the selection of the thermodynamic parameters of the heat sink in the Antminer S1.
In 2014, Jihan Wu discovered that this company was independently operated by Ketuan Zhan, which had huge problems. Forcing Jihan Wu to continue to participate in company management.
At that time, Bitmain's mining machine chips had just achieved a certain lead in the standard design process. Jihan Wu believes that the next step must be to develop full customization technology, but Ketuan Zhan plans to invest resources in the research of mobile payment chips.
Ketuan Zhan met a mysterious person from the Party Central Security Bureau who claimed to be able to manipulate the Party Central Committee’s decision-making process for the next generation of mobile payment cryptography standards, but this direction is likely to lead to the fact that Bitmain has just gained the lead in the mining machine market. Regained.
Jihan Wu said that as a graduate of the School of Economics, with a little memory of his high school stage and the knowledge reserve of a computer technology amateur, he retrieves various materials and papers every day, learns theories related to full customization, and goes to Ketuan Zhan conducts persuasion work there.
Fortunately, in the direction of full customization technology, Ketuan Zhan finally listened to Jihan Wu's opinion. Bitmain quickly integrated the technical experts from the United States and Russia introduced by Jihan Wu, which greatly improved the design level of chips and complete machines.
In 2015, Jihan Wu suggested that Ketuan Zhan consider the direction of artificial intelligence. But Ketuan Zhan is not here, he prefers the CPU direction. After staying asleep at night, coupled with in-depth analysis by the Bitmain investment team, Ketuan Zhan finally agreed with this direction. It is a pity that after the Tianshi Chen brothers made major breakthroughs in theory and practice, Bitmain officially invested in the relevant direction, and it was still a step behind.
In the two years from 2016 to 2017, Bitmain's business performance has achieved rapid development, becoming a unique super unicorn in the blockchain industry. According to Froth & Sullivan, in 2017, Bitmain Technology Holdings was the second largest fabless chip design company in China and the tenth largest fabless chip design company in the world, and the fourth largest fabless ASIC chip design company in the world, accounting for 74.5% of global cryptocurrency market share.
However, the huge crisis has long been buried in the early days of entrepreneurship.
Ketuan Zhan's decision on major directions revealed his weakness of extremely lack of business understanding. But every mistake he made was blocked by the company's core employees. His overconfidence in his management ability led to the gradual intensification of conflicts, and the management differences between the two founders became more serious.
4.The giant gets lost
The contradiction between the two broke out on December 17, 2018. Ketuan Zhan used extreme means to force the management to compromise with him by canceling the option, so as to achieve the goal of sole control of the company. Jihan Wu returned to Beijing from Hong Kong overnight and negotiated with Ketuan Zhan all night. In the end, the two resigned as CEO. Jihan Wu retired. Ketuan Zhan has the exclusive rights of chairman in exchange for the implementation of the layoff plan.
Jihan Wu's voluntary retreat has intensified Ketuan Zhan's management to do whatever he wants.
A Bitmain employee commented on Ketuan Zhan's management skills, summed up in two letters-SM.
After becoming the sole helm of the company, Ketuan Zhan quickly "rectified" the department in charge of Jihan Wu as the chairman of the board. He guided the sales of mining machines at the dinner, and pointed out that the sales performance is not due to the sales staff. Ability is strong, but the company provides opportunities. Take two sales leaders as examples, saying that if the company hadn't given the opportunity, they would still be losers. In addition, Ketuan Zhan also instructed the sales staff on how to toast and imparted the wine table culture and experience.
After the meal, Ketuan Zhan came to the conclusion that the quality of Bitmain sales staff was too poor, and Huawei’s blood needs to be injected to drive the company’s progress. Soon, the marketing and sales director from Huawei officially took over Bitmain, opening the era of brand premium for Antminer.
In order to further understand and guide the sales work, Ketuan Zhan asked to meet the customers with the sales staff. During the negotiation process, Ketuan Zhan had a heated discussion with customers on the issue of Chinese and Western medicine, and had also forced the sales staff to be able to ship 10,000 machines due to insufficient production capacity.
Although the requirements for sales personnel are strict, Ketuan Zhan has provided a lot of convenience for "Mainland Ark". In addition to selling mining machines at a more favorable price, Bitmain's mining machines are also hosted in Ming Wang at a higher price than the market price. Mine. It is reported that both Ketuan Zhan and Ming Wang are shareholders of Ark.
The new sales strategy of Huawei's executives has also brought very obvious changes to Bitmain. The self-righteous brand premium reduces the price-performance ratio of Antminer, causing competing products to eat away at Bitmain's market share. Later, Bitmain found that the strategy was wrong and started to cut prices, and found that the mining machine market was saturated and the purchase demand of miners had decreased.
More dangerous than the sales strategy is that the technical advantages of Antminer are being chased by competing products, and even overtaken. At the same time, the two mining pools under Bitmain also lost their first and second positions. The AI ​​business, which Jihan Wu placed high hopes and Ketuan Zhan personally supervised, became a laughing stock in the industry. Not only did it fail to make a profit, it almost brought down Bitmain.
Blindly introducing senior executives from Huawei to occupy important positions completely destroys the company's internal cultural foundation. The bureaucracy within Bitmain began to corrode from high-level employees to ordinary employees. Ketuan Zhan is not aware of this. He is still keen on recruiting Huawei employees, imitating Huawei's organizational structure and strategy, letting HR do sales and R&D personnel to do HR.
The organizational structure adjustment in October 2019 was the fuse for Ketuan Zhan to completely anger Bitmain management. This time, Ketuan Zhan completely marginalized Bitmain’s veteran employees, and suddenly promoted some of the “airborne soldiers” who had just joined the company to the position of person in charge, which caused the former person in charge to report to the new employees. The two managers who were originally equal The hierarchy becomes the subordinate relationship, the operation and development of different business lines are merged into a large department, the upward reporting process becomes more cumbersome, and the relationship between employees becomes delicate.
5. Headwind
On October 29, 2019, Jihan Wu urgently held a staff meeting. Prior to this, the legal representative of Beijing Bitmain has been changed to Jihan Wu, including the parent companies Hong Kong Bitmain and Cayman Bitmain. Jihan Wu stood in the lobby of Building 25, B1, announcing that Ketuan Zhan has been relieved of all duties. Any employee in the Bitmain Group shall no longer execute Ketuan Zhan’s instructions and participate in any meetings convened by Ketuan Zhan. If there is any violation, the company will demotion and expel the company based on the severity of the circumstances. If losses are caused to the company, the company will be held accountable.
Jihan Wu's speech is very long, which can be summarized as follows:
(1) Ketuan Zhan has been relieved of all duties. Also expelled from the original Huawei company HR Zhi Wang introduced by Ketuan Zhan at the end of 2018. Zhi Wang’s reputation on Bitmain was extremely poor and was ridiculed by employees as "nine thousand years" (In ancient China, the emperor was called "ten thousand years old", and the prince was "eight thousand years old." However, in the Ming Dynasty, there was an eunuch who caused harm to the country and the people. He called himself "nine thousand years old", meaning that he was only A little lower than the emperor's level).
(2) Ketuan Zhan's ability to control the company's option incentive plan has disappeared, and it is no longer possible to cancel employees' options at will.
(3) The organizational structure adjustment plan led by Ketuan Zhan was suspended.
(4) We are optimistic about the future of AI business, but the premise is that the main business can continue to make profits in order to support the company's continued investment in AI business.
In the speech, Jihan Wu also told employees the whole story of the "12.17 Incident" and bluntly said that the company is not in good condition. If no measures are taken, Bitmain is likely to go bankrupt in three quarters and he must come back to save the company.
At this time, Ketuan Zhan, who was on a business trip in Shenzhen, finally experienced the situation of Jihan Wu in the "12.17 Incident".
After the official return, Jihan Wu began to clearly point out the company's various problems in operation and management, and went deep into each business line to understand the situation. In the mining machine sales department meeting, employees spoke enthusiastically, reflecting on the difficulties and opinions encountered in the work, the marketing and sales director from Huawei asked with a surprised look, "Why didn't these issues be reported to me before?", and soon , The director was interviewed and "voluntarily resigned."
On November 2, 2019, Jihan Wu announced a salary increase for all employees. Bitmain’s last salary increase dates back to 2018. In principle, Bitmain has two salary increases every year.
On November 7, 2019, Ketuan Zhan spoke on social media for the first time, describing his hardship in starting a business, and condemning Jihan Wu for “stabbing a knife in the back”. At the end of the article, he also set himself a KPI for 2020, that is, the mining machine market share will reach 90%, and the AI ​​business will earn 1 billion.
But Ketuan Zhan's majestic plan did not make Bitmain employees feel emotional, but ridiculed him instead. Employees exposed that he insulted employees, advocated Chinese medicine, believed in Buddhism, drank in meetings, practiced Qigong...
However, there is less than half a year before the halving of Bitcoin production, and the cryptocurrency market shows no signs of recovery, which makes Bitmain management very anxious.
On January 6, 2020, Bitmain ushered in another round of layoffs, with a layoff ratio of about 1/3. This time the layoffs have caused many employees who have just increased their salaries to feel very grieved. On the one hand, they were looking forward to Jihan Wu's return. On the other hand, the compensation for this layoff was less than 18 years.
Ketuan Zhan, who has been unable to enter the Bitmain office area, once again spoke on social media and firmly opposed to layoffs. We do not need to lay off staff and we cannot commit suicide.
During the Spring Festival, Covid-19 broke out. Mainland China has begun to extend the Spring Festival holiday and advocate working from home. Under the chain reaction caused by Covid-19, most companies have chosen to cut salaries or even lay off employees. In the first two months of 2020, China's exports fell by 17%, U.S. stocks were broken four times in a row, Bitcoin plunged 40% in 24 hours on March 12, 2020, and crude oil futures fell by 300% on April 20, 2020...
Obviously, Jihan Wu can't predict, but this layoff seems to be the right decision again. In addition, from January to April 2020, Bitmain's revenue exceeded US$400 million amid the spread of Covid-19 and the collapse of the financial market.
6. Fight to the death
When Jihan Wu tried to get the company back on track, Ketuan Zhan was not helpless. On April 28, 2020, Ketuan Zhan finally rolled back the legal representative of Beijing Bitmain to before October 28, 2019 by repeatedly submitting administrative reconsiderations, and restored his status as a legal representative.
On the morning of May 8, 2020, a piece of news about Bitmain quickly appeared on the real-time hot search rankings, and even dominated the headlines of the day. At window 52 on the second floor of the Haidian District Government Affairs Center, when Ketuan Zhan, the legal person of Beijing Bitmain Company, was receiving the business license, a group of unidentified people snatched the business license from the industrial and commercial administrative staff. A source at the scene said that the number of unidentified people in the group was about 60 people, of which Luyao Liu was directing at the scene.
This is a skillful piece of news. It first leads readers to think that Ketuan Zhan is a victim, using 60 people to grab business licenses as the focus. The masses accused Jihan Wu of lawlessness, but ignored whether the government affairs center could have 60 personnel. As for Hong Kong Bitmain to have the right to appoint a representative to obtain a business license, this is a deeper level of thinking.
The follow-up report restored the real situation at the scene. Only more than ten people were present, and both sides were equipped with security personnel. Bitmain employees also broke the news in the circle of friends, claiming that Ketuan Zhan's bodyguard had injured Bitmain's authorized person, and said in a threatening tone, "Be careful!"
However, the subsequent plot reversal did not have much effect. Jihan Wu's reputation has been greatly affected. From a bloody soldier who rescued the company in trouble to a lawless criminal, it can be said to be a world of war. do not.
Ketuan Zhan, who succeeded in the first battle, began to counterattack Bitmain continuously. On the afternoon of June 3, 2020, Ketuan Zhan led a team to pry open the back door of the Beijing Bitmain office and formally occupied the deserted Beijing headquarters.
On June 4, 2020, Ketuan Zhan called on Bitmain employees to resume work and promised to expand the company's market value to more than US$50 billion within three to five years. After that, Ketuan Zhan began to contact employees by phone, trying to acquire the options in the hands of employees at a valuation of 4 billion US dollars.
Subsequently, Ketuan Zhan recalled Huawei's executives and issued a series of personnel appointments and removals. As of June 9, 2020, Ketuan Zhan has successively eliminated CFO Luyao Liu, and Wenguang Wang, the head of the mining center. Luyao Liu is responsible for controlling Bitmain's IPO plan. He also appointed Yanwu Ma as the HR director, Gang Ren as the head of the mining center, Yonggang Sun as the head of the supply chain, Ling Gu as the financial director, and Bin Zhu as the head of the mining machine business department. Bin Zhu is the senior executive of Huawei who was interviewed and left as mentioned in the previous article. During his tenure, he reduced Antminer’s 90% market share to 50%, and received a large number of complaints from miners. Internal employees once speculated that he might be Compete against the spies sent by the company.
In addition to recalling senior executives of Huawei, Ketuan Zhan also urged employees to return to work. They can receive a bonus of 10,000 yuan when they return to work on the same day, which is only half the next day. Ketuan Zhan showed a very kind side. Every time the elevator door is opened, Ketuan Zhan's hot gaze can be met, shaking hands, taking photos, and receiving money. As there is no personnel information, Ketuan Zhan does not know whether the person receiving the money is a Bitmain employee, and these people did not resume work the next day.
The effect of gentleness was not good, Ketuan Zhan began to force employees to return to work. Seeing that there are still very few respondents, Ketuan Zhan threatened employees through SMS, phone calls, EMS, emails and other harassment, issued multiple threats such as termination of contract, suspension of payment of social insurance, suspension of wages, and even used personal information saved by employees to form a group of employees. Domicile threats, requiring employees to perform "work handover", trying to force employees to return work computers, etc.
On June 10, 2020, the media revealed that Ketuan Zhan had controlled Bitmain's Shenzhen factory and prohibited employees from delivering normal shipments to paid customers, which caused difficulties in the operation of the Bitmain mining machine department.
On June 13, 2020, Hong Kong Bitmain, the parent company of Beijing Bitmain, issued a statement accusing Ketuan Zhan of signing a "Sales Agency Agreement" with the Ark Data Technology Co., Ltd. in which it holds shares, in an attempt to embezzle Beijing Bit's assets.
On June 17, 2020, the media revealed that Ketuan Zhan started selling 14,000 T17+ series mining machines at low prices.
On June 20, 2020, Hong Kong Bitmain officially suspended the supply of chips to the Shenzhen factory.
On July 13, 2020, in the "A Letter to All My colleagues in the Shenzhen Factory" released by Bitmain in Hong Kong, more details were added on the series of Ketuan Zhan's actions in June.
The legal person Feng Zhou of the Shenzhen plant is related to Ketuan Zhan. After being relieved of Ketuan Zhan's post, Jihan Wu flew to Shenzhen to have a long talk with Feng Zhou. Jihan Wu believes that Feng Zhou is the right person to manage the factory and help the company overcome difficulties, and decides to leave Feng Zhou to continue to manage the factory.
This wrong decision staged a story of a farmer and a snake. When Ketuan Zhan began to counterattack Bitmain, Feng Zhou was also quickly instigated and began to assist Ketuan Zhan in seizing customer machines and transferring 17,000 T17 mining machines in the warehouse. Hainan Continental Ark Data Technology Co., Ltd., which is held by Ketuan Zhan, sold them at a low price.
In order to protect the interests of customers, Jihan Wu had to make a compromise and paid the payment for some goods to a bank account controlled by Ketuan Zhan in exchange for delivery. However, after the other party received a payment of 109 million, the delivery stopped. On July 8, 2020, 5600 mining machines have been overdue.
At the same time, the factory defaulted on suppliers’ accounts payable as much as 200 million yuan. Bank acceptance bills issued by the factory, exceeding 36 million yuan, will expire on July 17, and more than 34 million yuan will expire on July 23. It is understood that Ketuan Zhan, after receiving the bank's dunning call, made it clear that he would not repay the loan, which would destroy the company and the entire group's credit in financial institutions.
7、 This is not the end
So far, the power struggle between the founders of Bitmain has been more than half a year. The office building already occupied by Ketuan Zhan is still empty, and most employees choose to work from home. Some chip developers returned to the office with the acquiescence of Jihan Wu and continued to maintain research and development to reduce the impact of infighting on technological iteration and competitiveness.
This giant ship that once stood on top of the supercomputer chip is crashing into the iceberg due to the madness of the former helm. Ketuan Zhan's madness and Jihan Wu's compromise made mistakes again and again. Bitmain tried to save himself many times, but was unable to get out of the black hole.
If the time goes back to that day in 2013, would Jihan Wu and Yuesheng Ge still choose to dial Ketuan Zhan?
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The deepest report: Bitmain's self-help history

The deepest report: Bitmain's self-help history
The original intention of this article is to let readers understand the causes and consequences of Bitmain internal fighting, but after writing it, I found that it is not so much internal fighting as it is a long history of self-help.
The story is very long. Let's adjust the timeline to the eve of December 17, 2018. That was one of Bitmain's most critical moments and the beginning of a series of subsequent stories.
1. Self-immolation In September 2018, Bitmain's financial department warned management that the company's cash flow has become very tight and operating costs must be reduced to allow the company to continue. The blockchain unicorn, which is valued at more than 15 billion U.S. dollars, is crippled in the run and struggling to break the corner.
In 2017, Bitmain made a profit of 1 billion US dollars In the first half of 2018, Bitmain made a profit of 1 billion US dollars Three rounds of financing, a total of 800 million US dollars Net assets should exceed 3 billion U.S. dollars In September 2018, Bitmain had tight cash flow and was on the verge of bankruptcy
A simple comparison, it is not difficult to see that Bitmain's ability to make money is incredible, and its ability to burn money is even more extreme.
How does Bitmain burn money? Do you pour cash into gasoline and burn it, or hire a lot of employees to stuff the banknotes one by one into the shredder? The actual situation is closer to the latter.
The following data can help readers quickly learn Bitmain's money burning skills.
At the beginning of 2018, the entire cryptocurrency market has entered a bear market, but Bitmain's monthly operating costs have been rising wildly. Operating costs have risen from 10 million US dollars at the beginning of the year to 50 million US dollars at the end of the year.
Large-scale expansion of the R&D team is one of the main reasons. The HR who once worked at Bitmain revealed that the company once hired more than 50 employees a day and nearly 500 employees a month. Even so, it was criticized for its slow recruitment speed. The cash consumption in this area is approximately $250 million.
Operating costs are just the tip of the iceberg. Excessive chip trial production can become a classic case of project management courses. Readers who pay attention to Cryptocurrency mining can easily find that Bitmain is still working hard to clear the inventory of Antminer S9 in 2019. As the co-CEO, Ketuan Zhan did not listen to the advice or even warnings of the Finance Department, insisting on the implementation of Excessive chip trial production, resulting in a large accumulation of inventory and tight capital turnover. Another CEO, Jihan Wu, once revealed that the loss of Excessive chip trial production to the company was approximately US$1.5 billion.
Large-scale expansion of the R&D team is one of the main reasons. The HR who once worked at Bitmain revealed that the company once hired more than 50 employees a day and nearly 500 employees a month. Even so, it was criticized for its slow recruitment speed. The cash consumption in this area is approximately $250 million.
The BM1393 chip incident is even more incredible. Chip expert Ketuan Zhan invested a lot of money on a failed chip, and finally failed again. From 2017 to 2018, Bitmain has failed Trial production of mining machine chips at least 4 times, including 16nm, 12nm and 10nm chips, of which 16nm Trial production failed twice, thus losing at least US$1.2 billion.
It is rumored that Bitmain still holds a billion U.S. dollars worth of cryptocurrency in a state of floating loss. In view of the rebound in the market in 2020, we will not comment temporarily, waiting for the correct answer from the cryptocurrency market. But the losses pointed out in the previous article are all irreversible.
2. Sole power
In September 2018, Bitmain's management realized the seriousness of the problem. It turned out that the company's money could be squandered. As a result, the management began to discuss self-help plans, and the most reasonable and effective way was obviously to lay off employees.
The probation period for newly hired employees at Bitmain is half a year, and the probationary salary is 100% of the official salary, there is no difference. Once layoffs are made, new employees who have not passed the probationary period will be the main layoff targets. The department managed by Ketuan Zhan will face large-scale layoffs. The layoff plan is strongly opposed by Ketuan Zhan. Bitmain can only temporarily abandon the layoffs and replace it with continuous reductions. For marketing and travel expenses, a budget committee was established to strictly approve every expenditure. At the same time, employee benefits, such as reimbursement of taxi expenses, breakfast supply, snacks and drinks, etc., have also been abolished, and even the tradition of giving employees 400 yuan worth of BTC/BCH every month has been stopped.
In the face of huge cash flow pressure, trivial savings is obviously of no avail. Soon, the management again discussed the layoff plan, and it has reached the point where it has to be laid off.
In December 2018, Jihan Wu began to organize all entrepreneurial veterans and business backbones to persuade Ketuan Zhan to agree to layoffs, but Ketuan Zhan still insisted not to layoffs. The persuasion process was very unsuccessful. After many meetings and intense debates, Bitmain executives were caught in a dilemma of wasting time with Ketuan Zhan.
In this process, the shortcomings of the dual CEO system began to appear, and the relationship between the two CEOs gradually deteriorated.
On the night of December 16th, Ketuan Zhan reconvened the management meeting, and more than 30 managements who were present were asked to hand over their mobile phones. At this time, Jihan Wu was on a business trip in Hong Kong and was busy with listing related work.
In the meeting, Ketuan Zhan's core content was three items:
(1) Bitmain cannot have two CEOs, only one CEO and must be Ketuan Zhan. Ketuan Zhan said that he met an old leader during a business trip. He hadn't seen each other for many years. The old leader suggested that the company can only have one CEO, and it must be him. Ketuan Zhan feels that this is a kind of fate, an opportunity given by God.
(2) Ketuan Zhan believes that the company's cash flow problems, the biggest responsibility is the inability of the financial department. To prove his point, Ketuan Zhan announced Bitmain's financial data at the meeting. In the evening, employees in Taiwan began to post messages on social media, saying that the company's capital chain was broken and the top management was split.
(3) If Ketuan Zhan is not supported, the option will be cancelled and the equity will be voided.
Hearing about this, Jihan Wu, who lives in Hong Kong, sent a WeChat message to the management who are attending the meeting.

https://preview.redd.it/c5cxea2lqid51.jpg?width=1080&format=pjpg&auto=webp&s=3d6a0388408f6b8abe10648e5e4b7a3a5434c821
On the afternoon of December 17, 2018, Jihan Wu returned to Beijing to negotiate with Ketuan Zhan all night, and finally reached a consensus in the early morning. Bitmain co-founder Yuesheng Ge announced the results of the negotiations. Jihan Wu and Ketuan Zhan ceased to serve as CEOs, and Haichao Wang served as CEO. Jihan Wu voluntarily backed down and Ketuan Zhan served as chairman.
The "12.17 Incident" had a very bad impact on Bitmain, especially the disclosure of Bitmain's financial status, which caused vendors to start dunning. The loan that had just been negotiated with the Bank of Beijing was cancelled the next day. Jihan Wu's resignation as CEO caused an uproar in the industry, and it became a hot topic among Cryptocurrency mining, blockchain practitioners, and investor communities. The media focused their interpretation on Bitmain's series of incidents, and generally looked down upon its ongoing Hong Kong IPO, believing that the high-level changes had already signaled the failure of the IPO in advance.
On Christmas December 24, 2018, Bitmain finally began to implement the layoff plan. This long-delayed “correct decision” was achieved after a stalemate for nearly three months. The AI ​​teams in Beijing, Singapore, Taiwan, and Shanghai have laid off more than 50% of their employees. The Israeli R&D center was closed and Shenzhen New Species Technology Co., Ltd., which had been acquired for only ten months, was dissolved, and all employees were laid off. Copernicus, Bitmain's top blockchain development team, was not spared and was wiped out in this layoff. Copernicus and some of the laid-off employees joined the new company Matrixport co-founded by Jihan Wu and Yuesheng Ge, headquartered in Singapore.
3. Past events when starting a business
After the "12.17 Incident", Jihan Wu gradually faded out of Bitmain's management affairs and turned his attention to the IPO and new company. And this is one of Jihan Wu's major mistakes, he began to let Ketuan Zhan manage Bitmain alone.
In fact, as early as 2013, Jihan Wu planted hidden dangers.
Jihan Wu, an investment banker, was the earliest translator of the Bitcoin white paper. He began to get involved in the cryptocurrency mining industry in 2012. The disappearance of Kaomao and Nangua Zhang's ticket skipping led Jihan Wu to decide to develop his own chip.
In 2013, Jihan Wu established his own mining machine company. Together with Yuesheng Ge, who was only 20 years old, he found Ketuan Zhan, an integrated circuit designer of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, to create the protagonist of this article, and later the digital Cryptocurrency mining giant, Bitmain.
Jihan Wu promised Ketuan Zhan that every time a mining machine chip was successfully developed, he would give some shares to the Ketuan Zhan team. At that time, the company founded by Ketuan Zhan was on the eve of falling apart. In order to regroup the team, Ketuan Zhan promised to share half of his shares with the team members. Unfortunately, this is just a bad check. With the rapid development of Bitmain and higher and higher valuations, the expanding Ketuan Zhan almost monopolized all the shares.
Like many startups, Bitmain encountered many difficulties in its early days, and many jobs had to be done by the boss. For example, in the chip design and production process in the second half of 2013, Bitmain was caught in a dilemma of insufficient funds. Jihan Wu personally raised funds and met with TSMC’s sales to persuade TSMC to accept the production needs of a start-up company. Jihan Wu also participated in the selection of the thermodynamic parameters of the heat sink in the Antminer S1.
In 2014, Jihan Wu discovered that this company was independently operated by Ketuan Zhan, which had huge problems. Forcing Jihan Wu to continue to participate in company management.
At that time, Bitmain's mining machine chips had just achieved a certain lead in the standard design process. Jihan Wu believes that the next step must be to develop full customization technology, but Ketuan Zhan plans to invest resources in the research of mobile payment chips.
Ketuan Zhan met a mysterious person from the Party Central Security Bureau who claimed to be able to manipulate the Party Central Committee’s decision-making process for the next generation of mobile payment cryptography standards, but this direction is likely to lead to the fact that Bitmain has just gained the lead in the mining machine market. Regained.
Jihan Wu said that as a graduate of the School of Economics, with a little memory of his high school stage and the knowledge reserve of a computer technology amateur, he retrieves various materials and papers every day, learns theories related to full customization, and goes to Ketuan Zhan conducts persuasion work there.
Fortunately, in the direction of full customization technology, Ketuan Zhan finally listened to Jihan Wu's opinion. Bitmain quickly integrated the technical experts from the United States and Russia introduced by Jihan Wu, which greatly improved the design level of chips and complete machines.
In 2015, Jihan Wu suggested that Ketuan Zhan consider the direction of artificial intelligence. But Ketuan Zhan is not here, he prefers the CPU direction. After staying asleep at night, coupled with in-depth analysis by the Bitmain investment team, Ketuan Zhan finally agreed with this direction. It is a pity that after the Tianshi Chen brothers made major breakthroughs in theory and practice, Bitmain officially invested in the relevant direction, and it was still a step behind.
In the two years from 2016 to 2017, Bitmain's business performance has achieved rapid development, becoming a unique super unicorn in the blockchain industry. According to Froth & Sullivan, in 2017, Bitmain Technology Holdings was the second largest fabless chip design company in China and the tenth largest fabless chip design company in the world, and the fourth largest fabless ASIC chip design company in the world, accounting for 74.5% of global cryptocurrency market share.
However, the huge crisis has long been buried in the early days of entrepreneurship.
Ketuan Zhan's decision on major directions revealed his weakness of extremely lack of business understanding. But every mistake he made was blocked by the company's core employees. His overconfidence in his management ability led to the gradual intensification of conflicts, and the management differences between the two founders became more serious.
4.The giant gets lost
The contradiction between the two broke out on December 17, 2018. Ketuan Zhan used extreme means to force the management to compromise with him by canceling the option, so as to achieve the goal of sole control of the company. Jihan Wu returned to Beijing from Hong Kong overnight and negotiated with Ketuan Zhan all night. In the end, the two resigned as CEO. Jihan Wu retired. Ketuan Zhan has the exclusive rights of chairman in exchange for the implementation of the layoff plan.
Jihan Wu's voluntary retreat has intensified Ketuan Zhan's management to do whatever he wants.
A Bitmain employee commented on Ketuan Zhan's management skills, summed up in two letters-SM.
After becoming the sole helm of the company, Ketuan Zhan quickly "rectified" the department in charge of Jihan Wu as the chairman of the board. He guided the sales of mining machines at the dinner, and pointed out that the sales performance is not due to the sales staff. Ability is strong, but the company provides opportunities. Take two sales leaders as examples, saying that if the company hadn't given the opportunity, they would still be losers. In addition, Ketuan Zhan also instructed the sales staff on how to toast and imparted the wine table culture and experience.
After the meal, Ketuan Zhan came to the conclusion that the quality of Bitmain sales staff was too poor, and Huawei’s blood needs to be injected to drive the company’s progress. Soon, the marketing and sales director from Huawei officially took over Bitmain, opening the era of brand premium for Antminer.
In order to further understand and guide the sales work, Ketuan Zhan asked to meet the customers with the sales staff. During the negotiation process, Ketuan Zhan had a heated discussion with customers on the issue of Chinese and Western medicine, and had also forced the sales staff to be able to ship 10,000 machines due to insufficient production capacity.
Although the requirements for sales personnel are strict, Ketuan Zhan has provided a lot of convenience for "Mainland Ark". In addition to selling mining machines at a more favorable price, Bitmain's mining machines are also hosted in Ming Wang at a higher price than the market price. Mine. It is reported that both Ketuan Zhan and Ming Wang are shareholders of Ark.
The new sales strategy of Huawei's executives has also brought very obvious changes to Bitmain. The self-righteous brand premium reduces the price-performance ratio of Antminer, causing competing products to eat away at Bitmain's market share. Later, Bitmain found that the strategy was wrong and started to cut prices, and found that the mining machine market was saturated and the purchase demand of miners had decreased.
More dangerous than the sales strategy is that the technical advantages of Antminer are being chased by competing products, and even overtaken. At the same time, the two mining pools under Bitmain also lost their first and second positions. The AI ​​business, which Jihan Wu placed high hopes and Ketuan Zhan personally supervised, became a laughing stock in the industry. Not only did it fail to make a profit, it almost brought down Bitmain.
Blindly introducing senior executives from Huawei to occupy important positions completely destroys the company's internal cultural foundation. The bureaucracy within Bitmain began to corrode from high-level employees to ordinary employees. Ketuan Zhan is not aware of this. He is still keen on recruiting Huawei employees, imitating Huawei's organizational structure and strategy, letting HR do sales and R&D personnel to do HR.
The organizational structure adjustment in October 2019 was the fuse for Ketuan Zhan to completely anger Bitmain management. This time, Ketuan Zhan completely marginalized Bitmain’s veteran employees, and suddenly promoted some of the “airborne soldiers” who had just joined the company to the position of person in charge, which caused the former person in charge to report to the new employees. The two managers who were originally equal The hierarchy becomes the subordinate relationship, the operation and development of different business lines are merged into a large department, the upward reporting process becomes more cumbersome, and the relationship between employees becomes delicate.
5. Headwind
On October 29, 2019, Jihan Wu urgently held a staff meeting. Prior to this, the legal representative of Beijing Bitmain has been changed to Jihan Wu, including the parent companies Hong Kong Bitmain and Cayman Bitmain. Jihan Wu stood in the lobby of Building 25, B1, announcing that Ketuan Zhan has been relieved of all duties. Any employee in the Bitmain Group shall no longer execute Ketuan Zhan’s instructions and participate in any meetings convened by Ketuan Zhan. If there is any violation, the company will demotion and expel the company based on the severity of the circumstances. If losses are caused to the company, the company will be held accountable.
Jihan Wu's speech is very long, which can be summarized as follows:
(1) Ketuan Zhan has been relieved of all duties. Also expelled from the original Huawei company HR Zhi Wang introduced by Ketuan Zhan at the end of 2018. Zhi Wang’s reputation on Bitmain was extremely poor and was ridiculed by employees as "nine thousand years" (In ancient China, the emperor was called "ten thousand years old", and the prince was "eight thousand years old." However, in the Ming Dynasty, there was an eunuch who caused harm to the country and the people. He called himself "nine thousand years old", meaning that he was only A little lower than the emperor's level).
(2) Ketuan Zhan's ability to control the company's option incentive plan has disappeared, and it is no longer possible to cancel employees' options at will.
(3) The organizational structure adjustment plan led by Ketuan Zhan was suspended.
(4) We are optimistic about the future of AI business, but the premise is that the main business can continue to make profits in order to support the company's continued investment in AI business.
In the speech, Jihan Wu also told employees the whole story of the "12.17 Incident" and bluntly said that the company is not in good condition. If no measures are taken, Bitmain is likely to go bankrupt in three quarters and he must come back to save the company.
At this time, Ketuan Zhan, who was on a business trip in Shenzhen, finally experienced the situation of Jihan Wu in the "12.17 Incident".
After the official return, Jihan Wu began to clearly point out the company's various problems in operation and management, and went deep into each business line to understand the situation. In the mining machine sales department meeting, employees spoke enthusiastically, reflecting on the difficulties and opinions encountered in the work, the marketing and sales director from Huawei asked with a surprised look, "Why didn't these issues be reported to me before?", and soon , The director was interviewed and "voluntarily resigned."
On November 2, 2019, Jihan Wu announced a salary increase for all employees. Bitmain’s last salary increase dates back to 2018. In principle, Bitmain has two salary increases every year.
On November 7, 2019, Ketuan Zhan spoke on social media for the first time, describing his hardship in starting a business, and condemning Jihan Wu for “stabbing a knife in the back”. At the end of the article, he also set himself a KPI for 2020, that is, the mining machine market share will reach 90%, and the AI ​​business will earn 1 billion.
But Ketuan Zhan's majestic plan did not make Bitmain employees feel emotional, but ridiculed him instead. Employees exposed that he insulted employees, advocated Chinese medicine, believed in Buddhism, drank in meetings, practiced Qigong...
However, there is less than half a year before the halving of Bitcoin production, and the cryptocurrency market shows no signs of recovery, which makes Bitmain management very anxious.
On January 6, 2020, Bitmain ushered in another round of layoffs, with a layoff ratio of about 1/3. This time the layoffs have caused many employees who have just increased their salaries to feel very grieved. On the one hand, they were looking forward to Jihan Wu's return. On the other hand, the compensation for this layoff was less than 18 years.
Ketuan Zhan, who has been unable to enter the Bitmain office area, once again spoke on social media and firmly opposed to layoffs. We do not need to lay off staff and we cannot commit suicide.
During the Spring Festival, Covid-19 broke out. Mainland China has begun to extend the Spring Festival holiday and advocate working from home. Under the chain reaction caused by Covid-19, most companies have chosen to cut salaries or even lay off employees. In the first two months of 2020, China's exports fell by 17%, U.S. stocks were broken four times in a row, Bitcoin plunged 40% in 24 hours on March 12, 2020, and crude oil futures fell by 300% on April 20, 2020...
Obviously, Jihan Wu can't predict, but this layoff seems to be the right decision again. In addition, from January to April 2020, Bitmain's revenue exceeded US$400 million amid the spread of Covid-19 and the collapse of the financial market.
6. Fight to the death
When Jihan Wu tried to get the company back on track, Ketuan Zhan was not helpless. On April 28, 2020, Ketuan Zhan finally rolled back the legal representative of Beijing Bitmain to before October 28, 2019 by repeatedly submitting administrative reconsiderations, and restored his status as a legal representative.
On the morning of May 8, 2020, a piece of news about Bitmain quickly appeared on the real-time hot search rankings, and even dominated the headlines of the day. At window 52 on the second floor of the Haidian District Government Affairs Center, when Ketuan Zhan, the legal person of Beijing Bitmain Company, was receiving the business license, a group of unidentified people snatched the business license from the industrial and commercial administrative staff. A source at the scene said that the number of unidentified people in the group was about 60 people, of which Luyao Liu was directing at the scene.
This is a skillful piece of news. It first leads readers to think that Ketuan Zhan is a victim, using 60 people to grab business licenses as the focus. The masses accused Jihan Wu of lawlessness, but ignored whether the government affairs center could have 60 personnel. As for Hong Kong Bitmain to have the right to appoint a representative to obtain a business license, this is a deeper level of thinking.
The follow-up report restored the real situation at the scene. Only more than ten people were present, and both sides were equipped with security personnel. Bitmain employees also broke the news in the circle of friends, claiming that Ketuan Zhan's bodyguard had injured Bitmain's authorized person, and said in a threatening tone, "Be careful!"
However, the subsequent plot reversal did not have much effect. Jihan Wu's reputation has been greatly affected. From a bloody soldier who rescued the company in trouble to a lawless criminal, it can be said to be a world of war. do not.
Ketuan Zhan, who succeeded in the first battle, began to counterattack Bitmain continuously. On the afternoon of June 3, 2020, Ketuan Zhan led a team to pry open the back door of the Beijing Bitmain office and formally occupied the deserted Beijing headquarters.
On June 4, 2020, Ketuan Zhan called on Bitmain employees to resume work and promised to expand the company's market value to more than US$50 billion within three to five years. After that, Ketuan Zhan began to contact employees by phone, trying to acquire the options in the hands of employees at a valuation of 4 billion US dollars.
Subsequently, Ketuan Zhan recalled Huawei's executives and issued a series of personnel appointments and removals. As of June 9, 2020, Ketuan Zhan has successively eliminated CFO Luyao Liu, and Wenguang Wang, the head of the mining center. Luyao Liu is responsible for controlling Bitmain's IPO plan. He also appointed Yanwu Ma as the HR director, Gang Ren as the head of the mining center, Yonggang Sun as the head of the supply chain, Ling Gu as the financial director, and Bin Zhu as the head of the mining machine business department. Bin Zhu is the senior executive of Huawei who was interviewed and left as mentioned in the previous article. During his tenure, he reduced Antminer’s 90% market share to 50%, and received a large number of complaints from miners. Internal employees once speculated that he might be Compete against the spies sent by the company.
In addition to recalling senior executives of Huawei, Ketuan Zhan also urged employees to return to work. They can receive a bonus of 10,000 yuan when they return to work on the same day, which is only half the next day. Ketuan Zhan showed a very kind side. Every time the elevator door is opened, Ketuan Zhan's hot gaze can be met, shaking hands, taking photos, and receiving money. As there is no personnel information, Ketuan Zhan does not know whether the person receiving the money is a Bitmain employee, and these people did not resume work the next day.
The effect of gentleness was not good, Ketuan Zhan began to force employees to return to work. Seeing that there are still very few respondents, Ketuan Zhan threatened employees through SMS, phone calls, EMS, emails and other harassment, issued multiple threats such as termination of contract, suspension of payment of social insurance, suspension of wages, and even used personal information saved by employees to form a group of employees. Domicile threats, requiring employees to perform "work handover", trying to force employees to return work computers, etc.
On June 10, 2020, the media revealed that Ketuan Zhan had controlled Bitmain's Shenzhen factory and prohibited employees from delivering normal shipments to paid customers, which caused difficulties in the operation of the Bitmain mining machine department.
On June 13, 2020, Hong Kong Bitmain, the parent company of Beijing Bitmain, issued a statement accusing Ketuan Zhan of signing a "Sales Agency Agreement" with the Ark Data Technology Co., Ltd. in which it holds shares, in an attempt to embezzle Beijing Bit's assets.
On June 17, 2020, the media revealed that Ketuan Zhan started selling 14,000 T17+ series mining machines at low prices.
On June 20, 2020, Hong Kong Bitmain officially suspended the supply of chips to the Shenzhen factory.
On July 13, 2020, in the "A Letter to All My colleagues in the Shenzhen Factory" released by Bitmain in Hong Kong, more details were added on the series of Ketuan Zhan's actions in June.
The legal person Feng Zhou of the Shenzhen plant is related to Ketuan Zhan. After being relieved of Ketuan Zhan's post, Jihan Wu flew to Shenzhen to have a long talk with Feng Zhou. Jihan Wu believes that Feng Zhou is the right person to manage the factory and help the company overcome difficulties, and decides to leave Feng Zhou to continue to manage the factory.
This wrong decision staged a story of a farmer and a snake. When Ketuan Zhan began to counterattack Bitmain, Feng Zhou was also quickly instigated and began to assist Ketuan Zhan in seizing customer machines and transferring 17,000 T17 mining machines in the warehouse. Hainan Continental Ark Data Technology Co., Ltd., which is held by Ketuan Zhan, sold them at a low price.
In order to protect the interests of customers, Jihan Wu had to make a compromise and paid the payment for some goods to a bank account controlled by Ketuan Zhan in exchange for delivery. However, after the other party received a payment of 109 million, the delivery stopped. On July 8, 2020, 5600 mining machines have been overdue.
At the same time, the factory defaulted on suppliers’ accounts payable as much as 200 million yuan. Bank acceptance bills issued by the factory, exceeding 36 million yuan, will expire on July 17, and more than 34 million yuan will expire on July 23. It is understood that Ketuan Zhan, after receiving the bank's dunning call, made it clear that he would not repay the loan, which would destroy the company and the entire group's credit in financial institutions.
7、 This is not the end
So far, the power struggle between the founders of Bitmain has been more than half a year. The office building already occupied by Ketuan Zhan is still empty, and most employees choose to work from home. Some chip developers returned to the office with the acquiescence of Jihan Wu and continued to maintain research and development to reduce the impact of infighting on technological iteration and competitiveness.
This giant ship that once stood on top of the supercomputer chip is crashing into the iceberg due to the madness of the former helm. Ketuan Zhan's madness and Jihan Wu's compromise made mistakes again and again. Bitmain tried to save himself many times, but was unable to get out of the black hole.
If the time goes back to that day in 2013, would Jihan Wu and Yuesheng Ge still choose to dial Ketuan Zhan?
submitted by paulcheung1990 to Bitcoin [link] [comments]

ETHASH, GPU & ASIC TOGHETHER?

[This article is an edited version of the talk given by Werner Almesberger at ETC Summit 2019 in Vancouver, on Oct 4th, 2019.] Good afternoon, my name is Werner Almesberger. 2019 ETC Summit, E1400 Ethash Architecture Overview Linzhi E1400 — Architecture Overview - Linzhi ASICs
I’ve worked on the Linux kernel many years ago, and today I talk about what I am working on at the moment. For a change that has nothing to do with software, it’s a mining ASIC for ETC, for Ethash. Linzhi is a Shenzhen-based fabless semiconductor company, we announced our Ethash miner at the last ETC Summit, expecting a performance of about 1.4 GH/sec at a power consumption of 1 kW.
By now you may be asking yourself the question: Given that there are now all these ASICs for Ethash — has Ethash failed? You could say in one sense, if you use a very strict interpretation of what ASIC Resistance means, namely that there could not be any ASICs, they would be economically infeasible, then you could say yes. But, if you think about what happened to Bitcoin, where basically the CPUs got eradicated by ASICs, because they enjoyed such a huge performance difference, and apparently nobody really saw that coming, which is surprising. Then you see that actually Ethash did extremely well. Because now there are ASICs, and they are a bit more efficient than the GPUs, which is to be expected. You Linzhi E1400 — Architecture Overview - Linzhi ASICs - Medium 13 of 15 started your ASIC resistant design on using ASICs already. Your CPU, GPU, are just ASICs. So obviously, it can be done on ASICs, and if you are a specialized ASIC it’s extremely likely to be a little bit faster, at least. That is pretty much a given. But, you can also see that those ASICs are not a thousand times better than CPUs or GPUs. That’s the good news — Ethash actually worked, it did its job, it prevented the threat of a hostile takeover. . . . If you want to know more, you can go to our website linzhi, and we are also on Telegram Thank you all. Werner Almesberger, Buenos Aires/Vancouver
submitted by pushingworld77 to EthereumClassic [link] [comments]

To Vitalik and other ETH Devs, GPU Miners need you and you need GPU Miners (PoW/ProgPoW)

This is directed towards u/nickjohnson, u/vbuterin, u/5chdn and other ETH Devs.

Edit: Proof of ProgPoW: https://gangnam.wattpool.net/#/account/0x445c466856266f8a609f87fdc6b0aaeb274d203f
Initial testing is seeing 8.8-10.15mh/s on RX480 and 3.8-4mh/s on RX460. Will include write-up soon, Newest ETH-Miner release!

Let me start this by saying, I mined my first BTC before it was even $100 or well known. BTC Mined. That was my first foray into the PoW mining scene. I had a lot a fun doing so. I enjoy building computers, testing equipment, fixing problems. It's literally my everyday job as an IT Hardware Analyst for a company.

I had to put down my mining on GPU dreams due to ASICs overtaking the networks of both BTC and LTC. I gave up on crypto as a hobby. Why bother? I don't want an ASIC in my house. There's no fun in tuning an ASIC, cannot change out components, upgrade it, etc. Then in 2017 I heard a whisper of GPU mineable coin that was ASIC resistant. It was called Ethereum. It was posed to be the next "Apple" with great innovations. At first I was beset by previous failures of GPU mineable coins getting overtaken by ASICs. Eventually with some discussion to my friend we built our first GPU mining rig in June of 2017. I got into Ethereum by mining it.

Now ASICs run rampant through most of the top 100 Cryptocurrencies. The current outlook, regardless of the bear-market pricing, looks bleak. I want to appeal to Vitalik, Nick, and the other Ethereum developers. It was GPU miners you had in mind when you created the Ethereum network and not ASICs. Vitalik made the best effort of a ASIC-Resistant algorithm. It latest for years but it's a cat and mouse game. Continued development of ASIC-Resistant algorithms needs to continue, not fall by the wayside. u/AndLan u/ohgodagirl, Mr If, and others have poured non-paid work into ProgPoW and getting it working on the Ethereum network because they want to see Ethereum succeed.

ASICs are now on the network, ProgPoW is a solution, and we need YOU DEVELOPERS, To stand with US, THE MINERS! Together lets push Ethereum forward to #1!

The Developers and GPU Miners need a symbiotic relationship. GPU Miners are NOT against you! You should not be against us! We need to stand together to make Ethereum strong and succeed, not become Bitcoin, which as even in Ethereum's whitepaper you understood it became fairly centralized.
However, this mining algorithm is vulnerable to two forms of centralization. First, the mining ecosystem has come to be dominated by ASICs (application-specific integrated circuits), computer chips designed for, and therefore thousands of times more efficient at, the specific task of Bitcoin mining. This means that Bitcoin mining is no longer a highly decentralized and egalitarian pursuit, requiring millions of dollars of capital to effectively participate in.

In regards to Centralization Mr If, made an excellent argument last Dev meeting, for ProgPoW which I shall reiterate/paraphrase here for everyone on Reddit.

PoW is geared towards industries of scale. This is why ASICs typically become the dominate force, because the ASIC manufactures have the capital, investment, and industry to produce them at a low cost. Thus they reap the PoW rewards. Hence why all PoW tends to go towards ASIC. They can decide to sell ASIC and recoup cost plus profit or keep mining with that equipment. Making ASICs egalitarian. ASIC manufactures decide, not the miner communities, what they do with the ASICs. You pay to play and you must be first.
ProgPoW takes the same approach but changes who the industry is, instead of Bitmain/Innosilicon it is AMD/Nvidia. These two companies are industrial level manufactures and have the ability to produce on a scale to support PoW(Just look at all the overstock of Nvidia 1000 GPUs). In this sense we are trading one(ASICs) for another (ASIC-GPUs). We as PoW miners must use Nvidia/AMD GPUs to support the network. Because it is the commodity hardware mass available to everyone. ASICs ARE NOT commodity hardware and ARE NOT mass available to everyone. Changing from Eth-hash to ProgPoW changes the players in the game and chooses the lesser two evils (AMD/Nvidia).

ProgPoW is not stricitly an Algorithm to replace Eth-hash but a has various "buttons" and "knobs" to tune. hence why its called Programmable! Ill let an Eth-miner Dev explain it...
-Andrea LanFranchi (EthMiner Dev)
ProgPoW is not strictly an Algo, it is a finite set of basic operations. ProgPoW is to be considered more of a process which creates variants of the algo every specified interval. Due to this there is no concept of ProgPoW as an immutable algo like Eth-hash. It tune-able and can dial various "knobs" that allow the creation of large number "definition sets" which again due to the deterministic randomness create an infinite number of algo changes.
ProgPoW creates a new search kernel every 50 blocks. Every 50 . blocks the gpu receives a completely new and different kernel from the previous which causes hashrate to change. In ProgPoW there is no fixed and constant hashrate for GPUs. You have to take into account averages across multiple periods to get the best out of the hardware. Variances are from 8-9%.

I personally supported the Network at $400, $180, $1400 and still support it now $100. I supported throughout the uncertainty of the Iceage and delays. Ethereum is still a PoW coin! ONE OF THE BEST! It's what made ethereum great! The project has excellent idea's of smart contracts and Dapps. On top of all is a massive GPU networking supporting it. Throughout 2017 there were no ASICs(That we know of) yet the ethereum network grew. What helped make Ethereum blossom was the miners and the mining community.

I am personally invested into Ethereum want to see it succeed, I'm personally invested in PoW GPU mining, and want to see it succeed. I will invest my own time and money, being a GPU miner, into seeing that ProgPoW testnet gets fully scrutinized, put through it's paces to ensure that it is a fit for Ethereum and minimize problems. I plead, beg, and invite all other GPU miners to do so. If we want change we as miners must show through hashpower on the testnet, that we are pushing forward with ProgPoW. Throw a single GPU, a Rig, whatever you can spare or muster for ProgPoW testnet.

I can and am more than willing to help anyone setup the necessary files, miners, etc needed to get mining on the test network.
Right now you can download the ProgPoW Miner(Updates are constant) And Ethermine is in full support.
Ethminer -P stratum://(ProgPoW Test Address)[[email protected]](mailto:[email protected]):4444 -A progpow

Let's make a Decision together on ProgPoW. Miners are in majority support of ProgPoW and 100% support of kicking ASICs of the network(Look at Ethermine's twitter poll). GPU miners supported you, helped build your network, not investors, not ICOs. At the very heart of Ethereum beats the GPU. Operating that GPU is a typically an enthusiast, hobby miner, and a believer in Crypto.

*Edit:*PoW is the known best way to distribute token "fairly", yet everyone hates it and wants PoS? What happens when large ASIC manufacture and centralized parties mining with ASICs earn more tokens than anyone else? Wouldn't that lead to centralization in PoS? Ethereum is on PoW BECAUSE it needs it! And because Ethereum needs PoW, it needs GPU miners, and to stay decentralized to PoS and in PoS it needs to keep GPUs miners on board.

Vitalik, Nick, and others, a time-line needs to be set, ProgPoW needs to be in the Agenda continually, discussed throughly, until it's launched on the main network. I will personally come chat, debate ideas, with any of you! Civil discussions are important!







submitted by Xazax310 to ethereum [link] [comments]

MINEDBLOCK: CRYPTO MINING MADE EASY FOR ALL

Since the advent of bitcoin in 2009, mining had been very profitable venture. This great opportunity mining sectors of the cryptocurrency industry offers also comes with his challenges. We can recall back how there was a struggle between BCHABC and BCHSV in the year 2018 which created more bearish trend in the crypto market because of much disagreement of mining protocol for these asset. Below are some of the challenges in mining:
Cost of owning a rig is major factors that have led to increase in mining fee for crypto asset
Climate change have negative impact on these mining rigs where they are been located.
Lack of transparency to users of miners by owners of mining rigs
Most mining rigs only features one crypto asset per rig due to lack of inefficiency of the rig.
All these challenges and many more in the crypto mining industry is the focus why the Mindblock have been innovated by great team that have proven experience in the mining and the blockchain technology .
AbOUT MINEDBLOCK
Minedblock is cryptocurrency platform that is design to make mining accessible and more easy to use without the need for miners to purchase or even acquire mining expensive equipment for mining services . The platform is built on the state of the art facility to revolutionize the crypto space. Mining can now be make flexible with the help of the ideas created by the minedblock teams.
SOLUTIONS CREATED BY MINEDBLOCK PLATFORM
 MinedBlock combines ASIC units which isBuilt with GPU Mining Rigs. Which can be divide into the following below:
Bitmain Antminer D3 –Dash
Custom built 8 GPU rigs –ETH/ETC
Bitmain Antminer L3++ –LTC
Bitmain Antminer S9 –BTC/BCH (BCHABC)
 The minedblock is hosting various masternode in other to generate revenue for everyone holding the native token of the platform , this also help to increase the ROI of the token .
 With regards to the physical asset part of the platform , the minedblock will bring transparency to the doorstep of every one which are users of the platform
 To resolve issues of hash whether conditions, the minedblock will be located at the Iceland which is suitable environment for the operation for mining and also due to the low cost and availability of the electricity of the region which makes mining more users friendly.
 MinedBlock will be offering a security Token using the Polymath ST20. This means that investors don’t require to buy, manage expensive equipment for mining operation when they make use of the STO.
 The mineblock also create a maintaineance structures for the mining equipment to make make sure investors or miners don’t need to spend much on the equipment.
 The minedblock is design to handle 50 coins on the top coinmarketcap which can give miners profit for job well done.
 The minedblock will continuously provide update with regards to the mining activities on the platform and also create a lasting relationship among miners.
To know more
Website => https://www.minedblock.io
Whitepaper => https://www.minedblock.io/assets/MinedBlockWhitepaper.pdf
Telegram => https://t.me/minedblockofficial
BOUNTY0X NAME: Kessiena
submitted by Kessypatty to ICOAnalysis [link] [comments]

Decred Journal – September 2018

Note: you can read this on GitHub (link), Medium (link) or old Reddit (link).

Development

Final version 1.3.0 of the core software was released bringing all the enhancements reported last month to the rest of the community. The groundwork for SPV (simplified payment verification) is complete, another reduction of fees is being deployed, and performance stepped up once again with a 50% reduction in startup time, 20% increased sync speed and more than 3x faster peer delivery of block headers (a key update for SPV). Decrediton's integrations of SPV and Politeia are open for testing by experienced users. Read the full release notes and get the downloads on GitHub. As always, don't forget to verify signatures.
dcrd: completed several steps towards multipeer downloads, improved introduction to the software in the main README, continued porting cleanups and refactoring from upstream btcd.
Currently in review are initial release of smart fee estimator and a change to UTXO set semantics. The latter is a large and important change that provides simpler handling, and resolves various issues with the previous approach. A lot of testing and careful review is needed so help is welcome.
Educational series for new Decred developers by @matheusd added two episodes: 02 Simnet Setup shows how to automate simnet management with tmux and 03 Miner Reward Invalidation explains block validity rules.
Finally, a pull request template with a list of checks was added to help guide the contributors to dcrd.
dcrwallet: bugfixes and RPC improvements to support desktop and mobile wallets.
Developers are welcome to comment on this idea to derive stakepool keys from the HD wallet seed. This would eliminate the need to backup and restore redeem scripts, thus greatly improving wallet UX. (missed in July issue)
Decrediton: bugfixes, refactoring to make the sync process more robust, new loading animations, design polishing.
Politeia: multiple improvements to the CLI client (security conscious users with more funds at risk might prefer CLI) and security hardening. A feature to deprecate or timeout proposals was identified as necessary for initial release and the work started. A privacy enhancement to not leak metadata of ticket holders was merged.
Android: update from @collins: "Second test release for dcrandroid is out. Major bugs have been fixed since last test. Latest code from SPV sync has been integrated. Once again, bug reports are welcome and issues can be opened on GitHub". Ask in #dev room for the APK to join testing.
A new security page was added that allows one to validate addresses and to sign/verify messages, similar to Decrediton's Security Center. Work on translations is beginning.
Overall the app is quite stable and accepting more testers. Next milestone is getting the test app on the app store.
iOS: the app started accepting testers last week. @macsleven: "the test version of Decred Wallet for iOS is available, we have a link for installing the app but the builds currently require your UDID. Contact either @macsleven or @raedah with your UDID if you would like to help test.".
Nearest goal is to make the app crash free.
Both mobile apps received new design themes.
dcrdata: v3.0 was released for mainnet! Highlights: charts, "merged debits" view, agendas page, Insight API support, side chain tracking, Go 1.11 support with module builds, numerous backend improvements. Full release notes here. This release featured 9 contributors and development lead @chappjc noted: "This collaboration with @raedahgroup on our own block explorer and web API for @decredproject has been super productive.".
Up next is supporting dynamic page widths site wide and deploying new visual blocks home page.
Trezor: proof of concept implementation for Trezor Model T firmware is in the works (previous work was for Model One).
Ticket splitting: updated to use Go modules and added simnet support, several fixes.
docs: beginner's guide overhaul, multiple fixes and cleanups.
decred.org: added 3rd party wallets, removed inactive PoW pools and removed web wallet.
@Richard-Red is building a curated list of Decred-related GitHub repositories.
Welcome to new people contributing for the first time: @klebe, @s_ben, @victorguedes, and PrimeDominus!
Dev activity stats for September: 219 active PRs, 197 commits, 28.7k added and 18.8k deleted lines spread across 6 repositories. Contributions came from 4-10 developers per repository. (chart)

Network

Hashrate: started and ended the month around 75 PH/s, hitting a low of 60.5 and a new high of 110 PH/s. BeePool is again the leader with their share varying between 23-54%, followed by F2Pool 13-30%, Coinmine 4-6% and Luxor 3-5%. As in previous months, there were multiple spikes of unidentified hashrate.
Staking: 30-day average ticket price is 98 DCR (+2.4). The price varied between 95.7 and 101.9 DCR. Locked DCR amount was 3.86-3.96 million DCR, or 45.7-46.5% of the supply.
Nodes: there are 201 public listening nodes and 325 normal nodes per dcred.eu. Version distribution: 5% are v1.4.0(pre) dev builds (+3%), 30% on v1.3.0 (+25%), 42% on v1.2.0 (-20%), 15% on v1.1.2 (-7%), 6% on v1.1.0. More than 76% of nodes run v1.2.0 and higher and therefore support client filters. Data as of Oct 1.

ASICs

Obelisk posted two updates on their mailing list. 70% of Batch 1 units are shipped, an extensive user guide is available, Obelisk Scanner application was released that allows one to automatically update firmware. First firmware update was released and bumped SC1 hashrate by 10-20%, added new pools and fixed multiple bugs. Next update will focus on DCR1. It is worth a special mention that the firmware source code is now open! Let us hope more manufacturers will follow this example.
A few details about Whatsminer surfaced this month. The manufacturer is MicroBT, also known as Bitwei and commonly misspelled as Bitewei. Pangolinminer is a reseller, and the model name is Whatsminer D1.
Bitmain has finally entered Decred ASIC space with their Antminer DR3. Hash rate is 7.8 TH/s while pulling 1410 W, at the price of $673. These specs mean it has the best GH/W and GH/USD of currently sold miners until the Whatsminer or others come out, although its GH/USD of 11.6 already competes with Whatsminer's 10.5. Discussed on Reddit and bitcointalk, unboxing video here.

Integrations

Meet our 17th voting service provider: decredvoting.com. It is operated by @david, has 2% fee and supports ticket splitting. Reddit thread is here.
For a historical note, the first VSP to support ticket splitting was decredbrasil.com:
@matheusd started tests on testnet several months ago. I contacted him so we could integrate with the pool in June this year. We set up the machine in July and bought the first split ticket on mainnet, using the decredbrasil pool, on July 19. It was voted on July 30. After this first vote on mainnet, we opened the tests to selected users (with more technical background) on the pool. In August we opened the tests to everyone, and would call people who want to join to the #ticket_splitting channel, or to our own Slack (in Portuguese, so mostly Brazilian users). We have 28 split tickets already voted, and 16 are live. So little more than 40 split tickets total were bought on decredbrasil pool. (@girino in #pos-voting)
KuCoin exchange listed DCBTC and DCETH pairs. To celebrate their anniversary they had a 99% trading fees discount on DCR pairs for 2 weeks.
Three more wallets integrated Decred in September:
ChangeNow announced Decred addition to their Android app that allows accountless swaps between 150+ assets.
Coinbase launched informational asset pages for top 50 coins by market cap, including Decred. First the pages started showing in the Coinbase app for a small group of testers, and later the web price dashboard went live.

Adoption

The birth of a Brazilian girl was registered on the Decred blockchain using OriginalMy, a blockchain proof of authenticity services provider. Read the full story in Portuguese and in English.

Marketing

Advertising report for September is ready. Next month the graphics for all the ads will be changing.
Marketing might seem quiet right now, but a ton is actually going on behind the scenes to put the right foundation in place for the future. Discovery data are being analyzed to generate a positioning strategy, as well as a messaging hierarchy that can guide how to talk about Decred. This will all be agreed upon via consensus of the community in the work channels, and materials will be distributed.
Next, work is being done to identify the right PR partner to help with media relations, media training, and coordination at events. While all of this is coming up to speed, we believe the website needs a refresher reflecting the soon to be agreed upon messaging, plus a more intuitive architecture to make it easier to navigate. (@Dustorf)

Events

Attended:
Upcoming:
We'll begin shortly reviewing conferences and events planned for the first half of 2019. Highlights are sure to include The North American Bitcoin Conference in Miami (Jan 16-18) and Consensus in NYC (May 14-16). If you have suggestions of events or conferences Decred should attend, please share them in #event_planning. In 2019, we would like to expand our presence in Europe, Asia, and South America, and we're looking for community members to help identify and staff those events. (@Dustorf)

Media

August issue of Decred Journal was translated to Russian. Many thanks to @DZ!
Rency cryptocurrency ratings published a report on Decred and incorporated a lot of feedback from the community on Reddit.
September issue of Chinese CCID ratings was published (snapshot), Decred is still at the bottom.
Videos:
Featured articles:
Articles:

Community Discussions

Community stats:
Comm systems news: Several work channels were migrated to Matrix, #writers_room is finally bridged.
Highlights:
Twitter: why decentralized governance and funding are necessary for network survival and the power of controlling the narrative; learning about governance more broadly by watching its evolution in cryptocurrency space, importance of community consensus and communications infrastructure.
Reddit: yet another strong pitch by @solar; question about buyer protections; dcrtime internals; a proposal to sponsor hoodies in the University of Cape Town; Lightning Network support for altcoins.
Chats: skills to operate a stakepool; voting details: 2 of 3 votes can approve a block, what votes really approve are regular tx, etc; scriptless script atomic swaps using Schnorr adaptor signatures; dev dashboard, choosing work, people do best when working on what interests them most; opportunities for governments and enterprise for anchoring legal data to blockchain; terminology: DAO vs DAE; human-friendly payments, sharing xpub vs payment protocols; funding btcsuite development; Politeia vote types: approval vote, sentiment vote and a defund vote, also linking proposals and financial statements; algo trading and programming languages (yes, on #trading!); alternative implementation, C/C++/Go/Rust; HFTs, algo trading, fake volume and slippage; offline wallets, usb/write-only media/optical scanners vs auditing traffic between dcrd and dcrwallet; Proof of Activity did not inspire Decred but spurred Decred to get moving, Wikipedia page hurdles; how stakeholders could veto blocks; how many votes are needed to approve a proposal; why Decrediton uses Electron; CVE-2018-17144 and over-dependence on single Bitcoin implementation, btcsuite, fuzz testing; tracking proposal progress after voting and funding; why the wallet does not store the seed at all; power connectors, electricity, wiring and fire safety; reasonable spendings from project fund; ways to measure sync progress better than block height; using Politeia without email address; concurrency in Go, locks vs channels.
#support is not often mentioned, but it must be noted that every day on this channel people get high quality support. (@bee: To my surprise, even those poor souls running Windows 10. My greatest respect to the support team!)

Markets

In September DCR was trading in the range of USD 34-45 / BTC 0.0054-0.0063. On Sep 6, DCR revisited the bottom of USD 34 / BTC 0.0054 when BTC quickly dropped from USD 7,300 to 6,400. On Sep 14, a small price rise coincided with both the start of KuCoin trading and hashrate spike to 104 PH/s. Looking at coinmarketcap charts, the trading volume is a bit lower than in July and August.
As of Oct 4, Decred is #18 by the number of daily transactions with 3,200 tx, and #9 by the USD value of daily issuance with $230k. (source: onchainfx)
Interesting observation by @ImacallyouJawdy: while we sit at 2018 price lows the amount locked in tickets is testing 2018 high.

Relevant External

ASIC for Lyra2REv2 was spotted on the web. Vertcoin team is preparing a new PoW algorithm. This would be the 3rd fork after two previous forks to change the algorithm in 2014 and 2015.
A report titled The Positive Externalities of Bitcoin Mining discusses the benefits of PoW mining that are often overlooked by the critics of its energy use.
A Brief Study of Cryptonetwork Forks by Alex Evans of Placeholder studies the behavior of users, developers and miners after the fork, and makes the cases that it is hard for child chains to attract users and developers from their parent chains.
New research on private atomic swaps: the paper "Anonymous Atomic Swaps Using Homomorphic Hashing" attempts to break the public link between two transactions. (bitcointalk, decred)
On Sep 18 Poloniex announced delisting of 8 more assets. That day they took a 12-80% dive showing their dependence on this one exchange.
Circle introduced USDC markets on Poloniex: "USDC is a fully collateralized US dollar stablecoin using the ERC-20 standard that provides detailed financial and operational transparency, operates within the regulated framework of US money transmission laws, and is reinforced by established banking partners and auditors.".
Coinbase announced new asset listing process and is accepting submissions on their listing portal. (decred)
The New York State Office of the Attorney General posted a study of 13 exchanges that contains many insights.
A critical vulnerability was discovered and fixed in Bitcoin Core. Few days later a full disclosure was posted revealing the severity of the bug. In a bitcointalk thread btcd was called 'amateur' despite not being vulnerable, and some Core developers voiced their concerns about multiple implementations. The Bitcoin Unlimited developer who found the bug shared his perspective in a blog post. Decred's vision so far is that more full node implementations is a strength, just like for any Internet protocol.

About This Issue

This is the 6th issue of Decred Journal. It is mirrored on GitHub, Medium and Reddit. Past issues are available here.
Most information from third parties is relayed directly from source after a minimal sanity check. The authors of Decred Journal have no ability to verify all claims. Please beware of scams and do your own research.
Feedback is appreciated: please comment on Reddit, GitHub or #writers_room on Matrix or Slack.
Contributions are also welcome: some areas are adding content, pre-release review or translations to other languages.
Credits (Slack names, alphabetical order): bee, Dustorf, jz, Haon, oregonisaac, raedah and Richard-Red.
submitted by jet_user to decred [link] [comments]

aelf AMA answers week 1 - 7.5.18

https://preview.redd.it/v6ga5pkqijw01.jpg?width=1920&format=pjpg&auto=webp&s=5a3d67003113fcd67408c4ffc1a71dfc0e6c0253
This week, our offline AMA kicked off with a flurry. We were hoping for 10 quality questions in the first week, instead we received over 30 submissions in the first few days, and to date we have over 40!
As I’m sure you could imagine this made it difficult to pick the top 10 questions and we know there are some great questions we have not answers this week! But we have done our best and below are our answers to the questions selected for this week.
____________________
1) Is aelf competing with EOS or ETH directly? What advantages do you have?
Ethereum is seen as the progression from Bitcoin as Blockchain 2.0 if you will. It brings turing complete smart contracts to blockchain so that more complex business logics can be executed. However, it's currently struggling with problems such as scalability and governance and the use cases are limited. Both aelf and EOS are efforts to solve these remaining problems and both projects add more functionalities so that the next-gen blockchain technology will be easily adopted by businesses. However, it's not accurate to say we are competitors as we approach the problems in different ways and the overlap of the use cases of these two projects may be small if there is. aelf's features like resource segregation, cloud computing and customizable side chains will enable existing industries to quickly migrate to blockchain as well as enable new forms of businesses in the ecosystem.
2) When will be the mainnet launch for aelf?
The aelf Mainnet is due for release at the start of Q1 2019, aelf Testnet is due for release in Q3 2018
3) HPB team is developing kind of ASIC unit along with software interface API to achieve highly concurrent computation. For example, single board will be capable to process 10000 TCP/IP connections in parallel (from HPB whitepaper). What do you think about hardware acceleration idea, are you going to develop hardware acceleration for yourself, or aelf blockchain structure don't need this?
The aelf chain will not need this type of hardware as it does not employ PoW. The Mainchain will be running DPoS. In addition to this, each node will be run as a cluster in a cloud computing format. This will eliminate the bottleneck from slower computers and miners in the system by each one running in parallel with all others in the node.
4) How did aelf get its name?
At the very beginning, we named the project "Grid" to reflect the multi-chain structure. However we soon realized that there is another project called "Grid plus" which focuses on energy market. In order to avoid the confusion in the market, Haobo and Zhuling decided to make a name change. Both of them are game players: Zhuling is crazy about Starcraft while Haobo likes Warcraft. Tens of names were proposed from each game and ultimately the "elf race" from Warcraft got the attention. To make it more fun, they decided to use an ancient spelling of elf - aelf as the project name. That's how the legend begins
5) How can we mine the coins? How many algorithms for mining?
There will be no Proof of Work mining for the Mainchain as it is running DPoS. This will mean rewards are handed out to mining nodes who have been elected into their position by the community voting system. Sidechains may also run DPoS, but they could run PoS, PoW, or other consensus protocols. As such, there may be mining opportunities for these sidechains which are different to the Mainchain, but this will depend on each organisation and the rewards will be in their own coin, not aelf.
6) Is aelf's true purpose Web 4.0? A blockchain based operating system? To run dapps?
Yes and no, aelf is building a framework which is designed to run dApps through sidechains on the network. This is focused mainly for businesses and other corporations who intent to incorporate blockchain technology into their business. Running as an operating system is more of an example, similar to how lots of businesses run their systems on linux, but it is not a main operating system for everyday public use.
7) Can I bring aelfie to aelf Singapore office to meet the team and take picture?
Sure, if you happen to be in Singapore you can contact the team to meet for a chat. However, we do recommend aelfie pictures to be creative and fun. That means there are many more places that you can take a picture with aelfie in Singapore.
8) What is a witness? What will be considered as a "good vote" by such witnesses?
A witness will be an individual who has staked a minimum amount of aelf coins in order to participate in the voting system for the aelf network. There is no good or bad vote, every participant of aelf network holding ELF token will get to vote on major decisions, such as electing mining nodes, introducing new features to the system and other major decisions. Just like there is no good vote when voting for the president of a country, each voter will vote in the direction in which the voter believes is the correct path or the node to be delegated.
9) Do you guys have a calm atmosphere where everyone is doing their job or do you have to be watched to not have too much fun instead of working? just curious
Our team has one of the best dynamics just like our community. Although the team is quite distributed (except the tech team is mostly in Beijing), we responsibly deliver the best to the project and coordinate among each other. Calm is probably not the best word to describe the atmosphere as in Blockchain space, it is really exciting and people are motivated to make differences.
____________________
For the final question we could not decide on one only. As such we have something special for you all. We have selected 3 questions to be listed in our surprise section. These questions will remain unanswered until next week’s post. But the twist is that we want you to comment with what you think the correct/best answers are. The 5 closest responses to the actual correct answers will be added into the next week’s post
https://preview.redd.it/8u7v9u7jqjw01.jpg?width=451&format=pjpg&auto=webp&s=3cc7b95694f06ba031441fcf823c01f17c30adc0
1) What are the ages of our leadership: Chen Zhuling & Ma Haobo?
???????
2) What is @floris-jan favorite activity besides aelf?
???????
3) Which animal is aelfie?
???????
Remember to comment in the following format:
1) ‘answer’ - if you are answering the first question or…
2) ‘answer’ - if you are answering the second question or…
3) ‘answer’ - if you are answering the third question
Answers which are not in the correct format will not be counted.
If you would like to submit your own questions, the AMA form can be found here
submitted by orzedwin to aelfofficial [link] [comments]

An update from Richard

E-mail update from Richard - the team have been busy :)
Electroneum - Tech Update, Instant Payment Patent & More Hi Everyone,
I’m currently whizzing around Asia and the Middle East to meet with some important contacts that were made at the Mobile World Congress in Barcelona.
This is going to be quite a long update (I’ve just read through it as I make this comment – and it’s a monster! I knew I should have written a novel) Here’s a synopsis (not in any order) for a fast update – then read the detail below, if you want to know more…
Patent Pending Secured! We’ve worked on this since last year, it protects our cryptocurrency hybrid system that will allow us to provide INSTANT cryptocurrency payments as well as cryptocurrency subscription payments! It is a game changer for the entire cryptocurrency industry, when it comes to everyday use.
Market sentiment (and how to change it) I’ll cover why the market has been filled with FALSE negativity and how we are going to change it (you can help too!).
Tech update (51% Attack, ASICS & more) There is no hard evidence that there IS a 51% attack taking place. The evidence that is being used is not evidence of a 51% attack in this instance, it’s a timestamp bug that is causing no problems at all. ASICS are nothing to worry about – we have ASIC resistance in the next update – which will be before the ASIC chips are widely available. Blockchain flooding, we are working on this from two ends – a blockchain update AND our patent makes the blockchain flooding far less problematic.
New technical team member introductions Two new blockchain based team members to introduce, who are already well in to fixing everything the market is worried about.
Growth (let’s end on a positive note!) Did you know that Electroneum is ahead of Twitter, Facebook & Dropbox in speed of growth? I’ll explain why.
Here are the full details if you want to dive in. Otherwise, thanks for reading this far - have a great day!
Changing the market sentiment… There is an enormous amount of negative and often false information flying around the internet about Electroneum. There has been a concerted effort by a number of very credible sounding people to try and damage the Electroneum brand for their own reasons or for their own financial gain.
A relatively small number of people have been spreading lies, fears and doubts at any sign of positivity. There is also an automated trading strategy that has kept placing tiny sell orders just under the market price which along with the negative narrative, has resulted in loop of negativity that seems to feed itself.
I’d like everyone to know that the Electroneum project is not in any danger and whilst there are some legitimate questions such as when we will be implementing ASIC resistance (covered below), there is nothing that is going to cause us long term harm.
An important thing to remember is that a group of people think it is worth spending a lot of their own money, and time, trying to discredit Electroneum and our team. We’ve always expected this because we are disruptive to the industry.
There is no other cryptocurrency that is poised to reach so many users, and there is no other cryptocurrency that has solved the problem of instantaneous transactions that will allow cryptocurrencies (not jut ours!) to be spent online or in shops, restaurants, cafés etc. Currently the volume of ETN traded every day is low and the ability for someone to manipulate the price exists. As we move forwards onto the largest crypto exchanges and we start delivering on our promises, I hope to see that daily trading volumes grow to the point that that cannot be manipulated. We will change the sentiment of people who doubt the project of the coming weeks and months with both innovative technology and by becoming the first cryptocurrency to start being used in everyday transactions by millions of users.
If you’d like to see market sentiment changing – don’t forget you can help! Any time you see negativity for negativity’s sake make a comment that points out some positives. I’m not asking for a giant spam army to take over the world (evil laugh) but all of YOU are Electroneum. It wouldn’t exist without you, so feel free to get involved and make positive comments about YOUR project. Electroneum.
Two New Blockchain Developers to Introduce
Chris Harrison, working from our UK office. Chris joined us recently and has a background in Fintech and blockchain. He brings an exceptionally high level of understanding of the mathematics behind cryptocurrencies and develops in C++ (among others!), the language that our blockchain codebase is written in. He is working closely with our existing team and our second new blockchain starter Andre. https://www.linkedin.com/in/christopher-harrison-3a95a2a0/
Andre Patta, working from Brazil. Andre has a huge amount of experience as a corporate software engineer working with companies such as Ericsson, and has spent much of his time in recent years working on the interaction of decentralised technology with the financial sector. He has worked extensively with the blockchain technologies of Ethereum and Monero. https://br.linkedin.com/in/andre-patta-77859b56
We are very lucky to have an AWESOME Electroneum team and both of the two new developers will add their strengths and take us to new heights.
Tech Update Both of the new team members are already working closely with our existing team to get a blockchain update ready for release. This will include ASIC resistance, update to the core blockchain code, an algorithm tweak to prevent empty blocks being profitable for miners and a number of bug fixes and tweaks.
ASIC Resistance There seems to be a lot of misinformation circulating about ASICS. ASICS are a type of computer chip designed to do just one job, and do it well. There is a new ASIC out that enables owners of those machines to mine ETN at a much higher hashrate than GPU miners, however there are currently only very limited numbers of them, and they are not available to purchase at the moment (they are not easy to buy, we are trying to get some for testing). The next batch are due out in June. We will have our ASIC resistance in place before they become a potential problem to us.
51% attack. There are rumours that a 51% attack on ETN is happening. People have been quoting altered timestamps as evidence of this, but that is a bug that we are aware of and has been there since the first day we launched. It will be fixed but is nothing to worry about. Orphaned blocks have no fundamentally negative effect on the functionality of the blockchain.
Any cryptocurrency can suffer from a 51% attack – where someone controls 51% or more of the mining power, it gives them the ability to make false entries into the ledger – however there is no HARD evidence that this is taking place. Our investigations have been unable to identify an attack, however people are starting to believe it because of the credibility of some of the article writers and the timestamp issue. Ask yourself this – if someone could manipulate a cryptocurrency and make money from that manipulation, why would they announce their ability by altering time stamps? They would not. The rumours of this attack are what is called FUD in this market (the spreading of Fear Uncertainty and Doubt).
Blockchain flooding. It’s true that someone is spending their own money to flood the ETN blockchain with transactions. Whilst a lot is being made of it by the same people, It’s actually been quite useful to us, as we need to understand the load requirements for true mass adoption. We have some great data from is and are working on a tweak to the blockchain code that will enable us to do something about this, including a change to the dynamic block sizing algorithm (more on this in another update) – but remember that our instant payment system that is coming and is protected in our patent (see below), makes a blockchain flooding attack completely harmless against ETN. Our systems can verify the payment and if it takes hours to hit the blockchain, the user and vendor are unconcerned (read about this in the patent section below).
In short, don’t worry, all the tech is in hand. Technical glitches and problems will always happen in any company scaling as fast as we are – but we will always find them and resolve them.
Instant cryptocurrency payments & crypto subscriptions - Patent Pending We are completely confident we will be the largest cryptocurrency by user numbers within a year. We are also confident that we will be the most widely USED cryptocurrency, with developments in instant EPOS (electronic point of sale – or tills as we call them in England!) and ecommerce.
Our instant cryptocurrency payment technology patent is now officially “patent pending” so we can now discuss some exciting details about it.
I’ve made hints about this for weeks, I really thought we’d have it submitted sooner, but it’s an exceptionally detailed patent that enables us to do some VERY exciting things!
Instantaneous Cryptocurrency Payments We have a hybrid model, with a centralised app and decentralised blockchain it enables us to INSTANTLY confirm to a vendor (shop or online store) that an Electroneum user HAS the funds available in their wallet and therefore they can checkout of an ecommerce system or pay at a shop till and take the goods or service, instantly. We then (internally) ring-fence the funds to prevent them double spending (just like the blockchain does) – and move the transaction to the blockchain in good time.
The vendor and the user are happy because they got to buy something in a shop or online with zero fuss, bother or delay, and the vendor trusts us to ensure the payment is on its way. Vendors are used to waiting after an instant SUCCESS or FAILURE message – as that’s what a credit card machine does. The money from a credit card sale is only deposited into the vendors bank after a couple of days or more.
Some of the retailers we’ve been speaking to right back from last year, absolutely needed instantaneous payments before they would ever consider accepting cryptocurrency – which is why we’ve spent so much time and effort on this patent and the back-end technology that allows it. (not a small amount of money either!). A lot of large vendors have been waiting for this patent to be filed, as it changes the entire way a cryptocurrency can be used and takes it out from being just a relatively small technical user group, to being a genuinely useful way to make real world transactions.
If the user is using the Electroneum App or web wallet system, and the vendor has an account with us, the instant payment system will be available to them. Instant payments can even happen between our users – allowing anyone to instantly transfer funds.
The back – end system is not quite ready to roll out, but we’ve already been writing the code in advance of the patent going live. We will have it to MVP (minimum viable proposition) within the next couple of months (sooner if we can), which will allow vendors to get an instant notification of a payment, which they can hook in to their existing payment processing facility. We are working with integration with a couple of mobile network operators first, as we are commercially further ahead with them than anyone else. We are keen to work with any large brands as they can leverage being “first in their industry” to accept cryptocurrency and gain the benefit of free publicity.
Cryptocurrency Subscription Payments So, if instant cryptocurrency payments wasn’t exciting enough, the technology and the patent covers something else that is a first in cryptocurrencies too, subscription payments in crypto!
Our hybrid model ALSO allows us to prompt a user for permission and then set up a subscription to make a regular payment to a vendor! Who do we know who likes subscriptions? Well, just about everybody in business is the answer – starting with the mobile operators.
Our patent covers subscriptions in cryptocurrencies and it covers subscriptions in cryptocurrencies to the value of any fiat currency, allowing a subscription to be either XX ETN per month (or week etc) or YY US Dollars worth of ETN per month. Users can control their subscriptions and permissions via a web interface (to be released).
Our patent covers all cryptocurrencies and even allows us to provide instant payments or subscriptions in any OTHER cryptocurrency via our system. The patent is over 100 pages of text and flowcharts, so it’s extremely robust and covers a number of other cryptocurrency innovations too, but I think that’s enough for now!
That’s right – we now have a protected patent that allows us to add bitcoin, Ethereum, monero or virtually any other cryptocurrency to our app and allow users to make instant crypto payments to any vendor who wants to have the convenience of instant check-out. This won’t be happening this year, as we want to get Electroneum (ETN) out there first into the market, but it gives us the ABILITY to provide this if the market demands it. We could therefore work with a large multinational vendor who had chosen a different cryptocurrency, but still leverage the Electroneum brand, as part of our strategy for brand dominance and growth.
There’s bound to be a ton of questions and there’s bound to be a lot of people trying to claim that this can’t happen or it doesn’t exist – but I assure you that the patent is filed (patent app. Number 1805708.3) and Dentons are confident of our claims, and we are going to deliver everything we’ve said we will. This single jurisdiction patent application protects the idea we apply for global patents.
It covers a number of other things too, that we’ve discovered by being the first people to ever handle this volume of cryptocurrency users in a hybrid app. Since we’ve found solutions for a lot of the problems, we’ve patented the techniques to give Electroneum the intellectual property rights, enabling us to protect the process, or even earn royalties from their use elsewhere.
One of the phrases we heard last year speaking to one of the large vendors we are in discussion with was “Where is your moat?”. What they meant by this is what is to stop someone else coming along and offering the same thing. What protects the Electroneum business model (other than our massive first mover advantage)? This patent is exactly what they were after. If gives them a reason to publicly endorse us as a fintech partner, because we are following the corporate path.
We are now protected. No new ICO can think “great idea” and take it, as it’s protected by global patent laws.
Faster growth than Twitter & Facebook - a positive thought to finish on. In amongst some of the negativity recently I thought – “hey! There’s another thing I’d like to point out to detractors and those with only negative comments for ETN”. We are already up there with some of the greats. Think about it, we’ve already shown that we can grow faster than Twitter, Facebook and Dropbox (we hit 1m users after 5 months of being live – Twitter took 2 years, Facebook 10 months and Dropbox 7 months).
Now think what we can do with a global patent that enables us to transact any cryptocurrency instantly into any shop or ecommerce system, coupled with a method to introduce new users to cryptocurrency in their millions.
I hope you are as excited about the future as I am.
Don’t worry about the future of Electroneum, we are building strong foundations to ensure we deliver what we’ve always promised. Cryptocurrency mass adoption. It’s coming…
As always, I wish you all health, happiness and a wonderful weekend
Richard Ells Electroneum Founder
submitted by Xlimxlim to Electroneum [link] [comments]

Crypto Mining and Rising GPU prices

A lot of people have questions about cryptocurrency, mining, and what this has to do with a rise in GPU prices.
You can find more information at various other subreddits dedicated to the subject:

What is cryptocurrency?

Currency, in general, is a medium for exchange that is based on promises for what that currency is worth. Commonly called "money."
Cryptocurrency is not centrally controlled or regulated and their value is based on the supply and demand; there are built-in limits for how much can exist (potentially curbs devaluation), public logs of the transactions (blockchain) and the cryptography algorithm make it difficult to counterfeit.
Maybe this old TechQuickie can explain it better.
TL:dr an unregulated form of digital money

What is mining?

The most basic way to acquire a cryptocurrency is the same as acquiring money, in exchange for goods or services.
The other way to get cryptocurrency is by mining, or solving increasingly difficult math problems in exchange for the cryptocurrency.

What does this have to do with GPU prices going up?

Crypto mining started on CPUs, but it didn't take long for people to realize that GPUs, especially the 'heavy duty' ones intended for gaming, are really good at it.
The downside to GPU mining is heat and power consumption, this lead to mining systems designed for the task and eventually ASIC chips designed just for mining.
As a cryptocurrency matures the math problems become very difficult, leading to pools of miners that share resources - this has also lead to some malware using infected systems for mining.
An older currency like Bitcoin is well into that 'pooled specialty hardware' age, but newer options like Ethereum are aimed at GPUs; this increased demand means lower supply which means higher prices.

When will prices go back to normal?

Probably if or when the cost to mine via GPU exceeds expected returns.
There are some specialized cards set to hit the market which may ease the demand on enthusiast GPUs.
A word of warning, when this happens the market will be flooded with GPUs that were used for mining. The lower price may seem attractive, but these cards have been used in harsh conditions, 24/7 for who knows how long. Mining cards probably won't run very well/very long or they could work fine. You have to decide if it's worth the risk.

Should I start mining?

That is entirely up to you, but please take some time to educate yourself on the risks and benefits before you decide.
Take a look at a profitability estimator to get an idea of what you might expect. These cryptocurrencies can be very, very volatile so don't quit your job expecting to strike it big with mining. Consider the cost of taxes, cooling, hardware, replacement hardware, and power.
Mining is hard on hardware, the wear and tear means things like fans, the GPU(s), and other parts may die prematurely. Keeping your hardware cool (about 300W to cool 1000W) can lead to additional costs for hardware and power or reduced output. The cost of electricity may not seem like much, but it can be enough to make or break a mining setup.
Take the time to figure out your ROI.

Should I sell my card?

Again, this is entirely up to you. There may be situations where selling a card and upgrading with the money can work out, but there are a lot of factors at play there, so do your research.
Check selling sites: eBay, Craigslist, hardwareswap, LetGo, Facebook, and other (similar) selling sites for pricing. If shipping, package it how you bought it: clean, inside an anti-static bag, in a cardboard box with some padding. If meeting someone IRL, be careful, meet in a well-lit public place - some areas have exchange locations at places like police stations.
I'd like to take a quick moment to thank Linux_PCMR for some insight, Graphics_Nerd for gathering some links for review, and the kind users that have replied to the number of posts on this subject.
submitted by zeug666 to pcmasterrace [link] [comments]

[2016 Chinese Article Translated] A Vital Force in the Blockchain World, They Are Developing Something that Will Help an Enterprise Like Alibaba

Hi Vechain Community,
As I said before, I think building a great community together actually matters a lot to ourselves and the hardworking folks at Vechain. So I found an article about Vechain that I thought was fairly well written which has some information that's not here. It's mostly about the early history of Vechain. The title includes Alibaba but don't be misguided they are not partners. I've just carried it from the original. Please point out and provide feedbacks to what other translations you would like to see. I'm not a journalists nor an excellent writer. But I'm happy to help.
Source: *https://www.leiphone.com/news/201610/FkCHnvT80RSIGSgG.html *Time: 2016-10-21 18:56
Vechain is a Shanghai-based company, focusing on solving the counterfeit problems for luxury goods, they are currently focusing on providing a supply chain solution which can prove a source of authenticity for products in the real world. Users can easily find out about the information and the history of products through Vechain.
The Beginning of the Story
Every story starts with an ideology, and this ideology is pursued with romantic heroism.
CEO of BitSE and Vechain, Chandler Jun, has been working in blockchain industry for about 3 years, He’s spent 12 years in IBM and in his own words, “I’ve never thought about leaving, until the moment I saw blockchain.”
CTO, Shuai Chu, to this date has become a renown figure in the blockchain community, has received his PHD in Computer Science from Chinese Academy of Sciences. In 2013, He left Alibaba due to his first encounter with bitcoin. Now he’s accumulated 5 years of blockchain R&D under his belt.
After 7 months of working as a CTO in Louis Vuitton, Sunny Lu left his jobs and joined the other two idol-level friends to start Vechain, taking on COO of Vechain (now CEO). At the time, many friends and business partners came up to him and challenged him, “Why are you leaving your jobs for some gaming coins?” — in 2017, Sunny Lu received a promotional e-mail from Bitcoin, in the beginning, he was simply wondering the difference between bitcoin and QQ coin, but then he embarks on a journey of cryptography, mathematics and his own business, with no intention of looking back.
No one can fight against the time, the futurologists say people overestimate what the future is going to be, but also do not underestimate what could happen in a short span of 3 years. The question to Sunny was, how can they take on this groundbreaking technology, along with their ideologies for the a better world, to implement the changes in reality.
The Recruitment of Blockchain Army
In the Anding district of Shanghai, sits an old building that catches no one’s eye, is where BitSe (Vechain’s parent company) located. If you walk up to the office, you will meet a bunch of world class engineers who graduated from Colombia. Just when you enter the door, you can also pet the Allah Chomsky dog who is just hanging in the office.
“Most of our engineers are located in Europe, a few of them in Shanghai, and the rest works from home.” says the CTO Shuai Chu, Vechain’s engineers are located from Morocco, Bosnia, Herzegovina, Russia, and Canada. We have meetings in Europe once in a while.
“There are just not enough blockchain talents here in China. Also, people who have the knowledge of traditional industry are just too hard to find! We had to recruit globally through the Internet.” says Sunny Lu. Recruitment was a very difficult period. In the beginning, “As long as you understand Blockchain. I will hire you!”, “But now we are recruiting much more specifically, we want people who understand smart contract and have certain domain industry.”
It was a period of barrenness, all we had was imagination and vision.
Many of the angel investors from Uber and Airbnb were asking: “Why did this people join you?” Sunny Lu answers: “I think engineers are the same as business people, they only join the people who they respect, and they also crave for respect from their employers. The best only want to work with the best. For example, one of the Canadian engineer on the tam, is a very well-respected engineer in the field.”
Despite such common sense, it was still a difficult time since Europe’s blockchain development is behind the world by a year. “What the Europeans were talking about now is something we used to talked about a year ago.” says Sunny. However, we were able to overcome such obstacles and Vechain’s competitive advantage comes from being use case focused. We focus on industry adoption, not mathematical theories and technical development. We are already collaborating with PwC, fashion brand like BabyGhost, and airline logistic companies, signing deals in which we provide BAAS (Blockchain as a Service).
Mining, Currency Speculation, and Applications
In 2014 September, Silicon Valley and Wall street was going crazy with FinTech, and Blockchain’s waves were also starting to rise at the time.
Ever since Blockchain became popular in 2015, according to statistics, there are 60 industries trying to explore and understand how they should navigate blockchain, attracting more than 10 billions dollars of investment. People call it the next Internet, with a high probability to reconstruct and improve the current world structure.
In 2013, BitSe enters the field of Cryptography, “We started with mining services for bitcoin, we’ve started designing chips (ASIC), mining pools, and some blockchain browser services.” says Chandlers Jun.
In the blockchain industry, the majority of the people only care about price speculation and mining, no one really cares about technology development. Our voices were not heard in the crowd at the time.
“But have you ever thought about the low level development will be getting so much attention as of today?” asked the reporter.
“I actually have, bitcoin’s design philosophy is very cleverly thought. But I bet most of the people did not see this coming.” Says Chandler Jun. We can see Chandler’s high involvement in cryptocurrency from the 10,000 blog posts he has written, and the manual “Building Yourself from 0 to 1 in Blockchain” he has published.
“Starting in 2015, we have attempted many use cases and directions of blockchain, including ICOs, gaming, distributed web, and we’ve even helped non-profit organization to record their cashflows on blockchain ledgers. But right now, we’ve decided to focus on Vechain, an enterprise solution platform.” says Chandler Jun. “Why do you focus on the supply chain industry while blockchain’s value is initially discovered in Finance?” Reporter asked. “Regulations are very slow and heavy in the finance industry, we’ve made several attempts. But the cost of failure is too high. We’ve chosen an industry with less regulatory risks to start with and we’ve identify very practical use cases of blockchain. So this is where we decided to start.”
‘’And of course, we had to work with our resource constraint.” says Sunny Lu, whose fashion industry background highly influence the homepage of Vechain.
When recalling how they got involved in the fashion industry, Sunny Lu says “In 2015, they have organized a 2 day workshop with many executives from the high-end brands to educate them about blockchain and also to understand what’s their current predicament due to technical constraint. We then reached consensus that blockchain can help solving the counterfeiting problem as well as building a better customer relationship and feedback loop.”
“The brands and the manufacturers care the most about their buyers. But their problems are, the sold products are currently like the spilled water. You have no idea where and who your customers are, and you can’t establish a communication channel. When someone brought an LV, Channel, or Hermes bags, the customers are not able to tell you whether the bag is fake. No one can tell you, no services is provided right now.” says Chandler Jun.
“Due to the lack of data, the upstream and the downstream can’t coordinate and work together. But with blockchain, every luxury item can have an immutable identity, everyone in the world can understand the item by accessing its history, including quality management process, its fabrics, manufactures, and many more. We believe this is a much better experiences of buying a high-end product. However, we never expect there to be no fakes on the market. It’s impossible”. says Chandler Jun.
Horse Speed
It’s hard to not think about Alibaba when we talk about fakes. “Alibaba has been explore blockchain, I’ve even talked to someone who works there, but we are too small now, we need to focus on making our products great at this moment.” says Chandler Jun. “I think the most challenging part is timing, we need to be fast. There is no competitor now, but we still need to run as fast as we can.”
Besides counterfeiting, Vechain also is exploring resource management and large scale supply chain solution. There are so many stories of Vechain that we can talk about, but right now the focus is to expand the scale of the products. All the engineers and business partners are working as hard as they can on a daily basis, so such technology can become a reality and a real world application.
submitted by dandanbang to Vechain [link] [comments]

CRYPTOCURRENCY BITCOIN

CRYPTOCURRENCY BITCOIN
Bitcoin Table of contents expand: 1. What is Bitcoin? 2. Understanding Bitcoin 3. How Bitcoin Works 4. What's a Bitcoin Worth? 5. How Bitcoin Began 6. Who Invented Bitcoin? 7. Before Satoshi 8. Why Is Satoshi Anonymous? 9. The Suspects 10. Can Satoshi's Identity Be Proven? 11. Receiving Bitcoins As Payment 12. Working For Bitcoins 13. Bitcoin From Interest Payments 14. Bitcoins From Gambling 15. Investing in Bitcoins 16. Risks of Bitcoin Investing 17. Bitcoin Regulatory Risk 18. Security Risk of Bitcoins 19. Insurance Risk 20. Risk of Bitcoin Fraud 21. Market Risk 22. Bitcoin's Tax Risk What is Bitcoin?
Bitcoin is a digital currency created in January 2009. It follows the ideas set out in a white paper by the mysterious Satoshi Nakamoto, whose true identity is yet to be verified. Bitcoin offers the promise of lower transaction fees than traditional online payment mechanisms and is operated by a decentralized authority, unlike government-issued currencies.
There are no physical bitcoins, only balances kept on a public ledger in the cloud, that – along with all Bitcoin transactions – is verified by a massive amount of computing power. Bitcoins are not issued or backed by any banks or governments, nor are individual bitcoins valuable as a commodity. Despite it not being legal tender, Bitcoin charts high on popularity, and has triggered the launch of other virtual currencies collectively referred to as Altcoins.
Understanding Bitcoin Bitcoin is a type of cryptocurrency: Balances are kept using public and private "keys," which are long strings of numbers and letters linked through the mathematical encryption algorithm that was used to create them. The public key (comparable to a bank account number) serves as the address which is published to the world and to which others may send bitcoins. The private key (comparable to an ATM PIN) is meant to be a guarded secret and only used to authorize Bitcoin transmissions. Style notes: According to the official Bitcoin Foundation, the word "Bitcoin" is capitalized in the context of referring to the entity or concept, whereas "bitcoin" is written in the lower case when referring to a quantity of the currency (e.g. "I traded 20 bitcoin") or the units themselves. The plural form can be either "bitcoin" or "bitcoins."
How Bitcoin Works Bitcoin is one of the first digital currencies to use peer-to-peer technology to facilitate instant payments. The independent individuals and companies who own the governing computing power and participate in the Bitcoin network, also known as "miners," are motivated by rewards (the release of new bitcoin) and transaction fees paid in bitcoin. These miners can be thought of as the decentralized authority enforcing the credibility of the Bitcoin network. New bitcoin is being released to the miners at a fixed, but periodically declining rate, such that the total supply of bitcoins approaches 21 million. One bitcoin is divisible to eight decimal places (100 millionths of one bitcoin), and this smallest unit is referred to as a Satoshi. If necessary, and if the participating miners accept the change, Bitcoin could eventually be made divisible to even more decimal places. Bitcoin mining is the process through which bitcoins are released to come into circulation. Basically, it involves solving a computationally difficult puzzle to discover a new block, which is added to the blockchain and receiving a reward in the form of a few bitcoins. The block reward was 50 new bitcoins in 2009; it decreases every four years. As more and more bitcoins are created, the difficulty of the mining process – that is, the amount of computing power involved – increases. The mining difficulty began at 1.0 with Bitcoin's debut back in 2009; at the end of the year, it was only 1.18. As of February 2019, the mining difficulty is over 6.06 billion. Once, an ordinary desktop computer sufficed for the mining process; now, to combat the difficulty level, miners must use faster hardware like Application-Specific Integrated Circuits (ASIC), more advanced processing units like Graphic Processing Units (GPUs), etc.
What's a Bitcoin Worth? In 2017 alone, the price of Bitcoin rose from a little under $1,000 at the beginning of the year to close to $19,000, ending the year more than 1,400% higher. Bitcoin's price is also quite dependent on the size of its mining network since the larger the network is, the more difficult – and thus more costly – it is to produce new bitcoins. As a result, the price of bitcoin has to increase as its cost of production also rises. The Bitcoin mining network's aggregate power has more than tripled over the past twelve months.
How Bitcoin Began
Aug. 18, 2008: The domain name bitcoin.org is registered. Today, at least, this domain is "WhoisGuard Protected," meaning the identity of the person who registered it is not public information.
Oct. 31, 2008: Someone using the name Satoshi Nakamoto makes an announcement on The Cryptography Mailing list at metzdowd.com: "I've been working on a new electronic cash system that's fully peer-to-peer, with no trusted third party. The paper is available at http://www.bitcoin.org/bitcoin.pdf." This link leads to the now-famous white paper published on bitcoin.org entitled "Bitcoin: A Peer-to-Peer Electronic Cash System." This paper would become the Magna Carta for how Bitcoin operates today.
Jan. 3, 2009: The first Bitcoin block is mined, Block 0. This is also known as the "genesis block" and contains the text: "The Times 03/Jan/2009 Chancellor on brink of second bailout for banks," perhaps as proof that the block was mined on or after that date, and perhaps also as relevant political commentary.
Jan. 8, 2009: The first version of the Bitcoin software is announced on The Cryptography Mailing list.
Jan. 9, 2009: Block 1 is mined, and Bitcoin mining commences in earnest.
Who Invented Bitcoin?
No one knows. Not conclusively, at any rate. Satoshi Nakamoto is the name associated with the person or group of people who released the original Bitcoin white paper in 2008 and worked on the original Bitcoin software that was released in 2009. The Bitcoin protocol requires users to enter a birthday upon signup, and we know that an individual named Satoshi Nakamoto registered and put down April 5 as a birth date. And that's about it.
Before Satoshi
Though it is tempting to believe the media's spin that Satoshi Nakamoto is a solitary, quixotic genius who created Bitcoin out of thin air, such innovations do not happen in a vacuum. All major scientific discoveries, no matter how original-seeming, were built on previously existing research. There are precursors to Bitcoin: Adam Back’s Hashcash, invented in 1997, and subsequently Wei Dai’s b-money, Nick Szabo’s bit gold and Hal Finney’s Reusable Proof of Work. The Bitcoin white paper itself cites Hashcash and b-money, as well as various other works spanning several research fields.
Why Is Satoshi Anonymous?
There are two primary motivations for keeping Bitcoin's inventor keeping his or her or their identity secret. One is privacy. As Bitcoin has gained in popularity – becoming something of a worldwide phenomenon – Satoshi Nakamoto would likely garner a lot of attention from the media and from governments.
The other reason is safety. Looking at 2009 alone, 32,489 blocks were mined; at the then-reward rate of 50 BTC per block, the total payout in 2009 was 1,624,500 BTC, which at today’s prices is over $900 million. One may conclude that only Satoshi and perhaps a few other people were mining through 2009 and that they possess a majority of that $900 million worth of BTC. Someone in possession of that much BTC could become a target of criminals, especially since bitcoins are less like stocks and more like cash, where the private keys needed to authorize spending could be printed out and literally kept under a mattress. While it's likely the inventor of Bitcoin would take precautions to make any extortion-induced transfers traceable, remaining anonymous is a good way for Satoshi to limit exposure.
The Suspects
Numerous people have been suggested as possible Satoshi Nakamoto by major media outlets. Oct. 10, 2011, The New Yorker published an article speculating that Nakamoto might be Irish cryptography student Michael Clear or economic sociologist Vili Lehdonvirta. A day later, Fast Company suggested that Nakamoto could be a group of three people – Neal King, Vladimir Oksman and Charles Bry – who together appear on a patent related to secure communications that were filed two months before bitcoin.org was registered. A Vice article published in May 2013 added more suspects to the list, including Gavin Andresen, the Bitcoin project’s lead developer; Jed McCaleb, co-founder of now-defunct Bitcoin exchange Mt. Gox; and famed Japanese mathematician Shinichi Mochizuki.
In December 2013, Techcrunch published an interview with researcher Skye Grey who claimed textual analysis of published writings shows a link between Satoshi and bit-gold creator Nick Szabo. And perhaps most famously, in March 2014, Newsweek ran a cover article claiming that Satoshi is actually an individual named Satoshi Nakamoto – a 64-year-old Japanese-American engineer living in California. The list of suspects is long, and all the individuals deny being Satoshi.
Can Satoshi's Identity Be Proven?
It would seem even early collaborators on the project don’t have verifiable proof of Satoshi’s identity. To reveal conclusively who Satoshi Nakamoto is, a definitive link would need to be made between his/her activity with Bitcoin and his/her identity. That could come in the form of linking the party behind the domain registration of bitcoin.org, email and forum accounts used by Satoshi Nakamoto, or ownership of some portion of the earliest mined bitcoins. Even though the bitcoins Satoshi likely possesses are traceable on the blockchain, it seems he/she has yet to cash them out in a way that reveals his/her identity. If Satoshi were to move his/her bitcoins to an exchange today, this might attract attention, but it seems unlikely that a well-funded and successful exchange would betray a customer's privacy.
Receiving Bitcoins As Payment
Bitcoins can be accepted as a means of payment for products sold or services provided. If you have a brick and mortar store, just display a sign saying “Bitcoin Accepted Here” and many of your customers may well take you up on it; the transactions can be handled with the requisite hardware terminal or wallet address through QR codes and touch screen apps. An online business can easily accept bitcoins by just adding this payment option to the others it offers, like credit cards, PayPal, etc. Online payments will require a Bitcoin merchant tool (an external processor like Coinbase or BitPay).
Working For Bitcoins
Those who are self-employed can get paid for a job in bitcoins. There are several websites/job boards which are dedicated to the digital currency:
Work For Bitcoin brings together work seekers and prospective employers through its websiteCoinality features jobs – freelance, part-time and full-time – that offer payment in bitcoins, as well as Dogecoin and LitecoinJobs4Bitcoins, part of reddit.comBitGigs
Bitcoin From Interest Payments
Another interesting way (literally) to earn bitcoins is by lending them out and being repaid in the currency. Lending can take three forms – direct lending to someone you know; through a website which facilitates peer-to-peer transactions, pairing borrowers and lenders; or depositing bitcoins in a virtual bank that offers a certain interest rate for Bitcoin accounts. Some such sites are Bitbond, BitLendingClub, and BTCjam. Obviously, you should do due diligence on any third-party site.
Bitcoins From Gambling
It’s possible to play at casinos that cater to Bitcoin aficionados, with options like online lotteries, jackpots, spread betting, and other games. Of course, the pros and cons and risks that apply to any sort of gambling and betting endeavors are in force here too.
Investing in Bitcoins
There are many Bitcoin supporters who believe that digital currency is the future. Those who endorse it are of the view that it facilitates a much faster, no-fee payment system for transactions across the globe. Although it is not itself any backed by any government or central bank, bitcoin can be exchanged for traditional currencies; in fact, its exchange rate against the dollar attracts potential investors and traders interested in currency plays. Indeed, one of the primary reasons for the growth of digital currencies like Bitcoin is that they can act as an alternative to national fiat money and traditional commodities like gold.
In March 2014, the IRS stated that all virtual currencies, including bitcoins, would be taxed as property rather than currency. Gains or losses from bitcoins held as capital will be realized as capital gains or losses, while bitcoins held as inventory will incur ordinary gains or losses.
Like any other asset, the principle of buying low and selling high applies to bitcoins. The most popular way of amassing the currency is through buying on a Bitcoin exchange, but there are many other ways to earn and own bitcoins. Here are a few options which Bitcoin enthusiasts can explore.
Risks of Bitcoin Investing
Though Bitcoin was not designed as a normal equity investment (no shares have been issued), some speculative investors were drawn to the digital money after it appreciated rapidly in May 2011 and again in November 2013. Thus, many people purchase bitcoin for its investment value rather than as a medium of exchange.
However, their lack of guaranteed value and digital nature means the purchase and use of bitcoins carries several inherent risks. Many investor alerts have been issued by the Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC), the Financial Industry Regulatory Authority (FINRA), the Consumer Financial Protection Bureau (CFPB), and other agencies.
The concept of a virtual currency is still novel and, compared to traditional investments, Bitcoin doesn't have much of a long-term track record or history of credibility to back it. With their increasing use, bitcoins are becoming less experimental every day, of course; still, after eight years, they (like all digital currencies) remain in a development phase, still evolving. "It is pretty much the highest-risk, highest-return investment that you can possibly make,” says Barry Silbert, CEO of Digital Currency Group, which builds and invests in Bitcoin and blockchain companies.
Bitcoin Regulatory Risk
Investing money into Bitcoin in any of its many guises is not for the risk-averse. Bitcoins are a rival to government currency and may be used for black market transactions, money laundering, illegal activities or tax evasion. As a result, governments may seek to regulate, restrict or ban the use and sale of bitcoins, and some already have. Others are coming up with various rules. For example, in 2015, the New York State Department of Financial Services finalized regulations that would require companies dealing with the buy, sell, transfer or storage of bitcoins to record the identity of customers, have a compliance officer and maintain capital reserves. The transactions worth $10,000 or more will have to be recorded and reported.
Although more agencies will follow suit, issuing rules and guidelines, the lack of uniform regulations about bitcoins (and other virtual currency) raises questions over their longevity, liquidity, and universality.
Security Risk of Bitcoins
Bitcoin exchanges are entirely digital and, as with any virtual system, are at risk from hackers, malware and operational glitches. If a thief gains access to a Bitcoin owner's computer hard drive and steals his private encryption key, he could transfer the stolen Bitcoins to another account. (Users can prevent this only if bitcoins are stored on a computer which is not connected to the internet, or else by choosing to use a paper wallet – printing out the Bitcoin private keys and addresses, and not keeping them on a computer at all.) Hackers can also target Bitcoin exchanges, gaining access to thousands of accounts and digital wallets where bitcoins are stored. One especially notorious hacking incident took place in 2014, when Mt. Gox, a Bitcoin exchange in Japan, was forced to close down after millions of dollars worth of bitcoins were stolen.
This is particularly problematic once you remember that all Bitcoin transactions are permanent and irreversible. It's like dealing with cash: Any transaction carried out with bitcoins can only be reversed if the person who has received them refunds them. There is no third party or a payment processor, as in the case of a debit or credit card – hence, no source of protection or appeal if there is a problem.
Insurance Risk
Some investments are insured through the Securities Investor Protection Corporation. Normal bank accounts are insured through the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation (FDIC) up to a certain amount depending on the jurisdiction. Bitcoin exchanges and Bitcoin accounts are not insured by any type of federal or government program.
Risk of Bitcoin Fraud
While Bitcoin uses private key encryption to verify owners and register transactions, fraudsters and scammers may attempt to sell false bitcoins. For instance, in July 2013, the SEC brought legal action against an operator of a Bitcoin-related Ponzi scheme.
Market Risk
Like with any investment, Bitcoin values can fluctuate. Indeed, the value of the currency has seen wild swings in price over its short existence. Subject to high volume buying and selling on exchanges, it has a high sensitivity to “news." According to the CFPB, the price of bitcoins fell by 61% in a single day in 2013, while the one-day price drop in 2014 has been as big as 80%.
If fewer people begin to accept Bitcoin as a currency, these digital units may lose value and could become worthless. There is already plenty of competition, and though Bitcoin has a huge lead over the other 100-odd digital currencies that have sprung up, thanks to its brand recognition and venture capital money, a technological break-through in the form of a better virtual coin is always a threat.
Bitcoin's Tax Risk
As bitcoin is ineligible to be included in any tax-advantaged retirement accounts, there are no good, legal options to shield investments from taxation.
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Related Terms
Satoshi
The satoshi is the smallest unit of the bitcoin cryptocurrency. It is named after Satoshi Nakamoto, the creator of the protocol used in block chains and the bitcoin cryptocurrency.
Chartalism Chartalism is a non-mainstream theory of money that emphasizes the impact of government policies and activities on the value of money.
Satoshi Nakamoto The name used by the unknown creator of the protocol used in the bitcoin cryptocurrency. Satoshi Nakamoto is closely-associated with blockchain technology.
Bitcoin Mining, Explained Breaking down everything you need to know about Bitcoin Mining, from Blockchain and Block Rewards to Proof-of-Work and Mining Pools.
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Blockchain Explained
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Top 6 Books to Learn About Bitcoin About UsAdvertiseContactPrivacy PolicyTerms of UseCareers Investopedia is part of the Dotdash publishing family.The Balance Lifewire TripSavvy The Spruceand more
By Satoshi Nakamoto
Read it once, go read other crypto stuff, read it again… keep doing this until the whole document makes sense. It’ll take a while, but you’ll get there. This is the original whitepaper introducing and explaining Bitcoin, and there’s really nothing better out there to understand on the subject.
“What is needed is an electronic payment system based on cryptographic proof instead of trust, allowing any two willing parties to transact directly with each other without the need for a trusted third party

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[TUTORIAL] HEX16A ASIC Bitcoin Miner W7

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